University of Tokyo

Survey Number 1226
Survey Title Fact-finding Survey on Balancing Work and Childrearing, 2017
Depositor Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, Employment Environment and Equal Employment Bureau
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Educational Purpose Available for both research and instructional purposes.
Period of Data Use Permission One year
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Summary Given the declining population, it is becoming an increasingly important policy issue, for both men and women, to create an environment where workers can balance work and childcare and continue working with peace of mind.

Although a goal has been set for 13% of male employees to be able to take parental leave by 2020, the actual rate at which male employees take parental leave is still low and moving sluggishly. Research has repeatedly pointed out the need to promote parental leave. For this reason, it is necessary to recognize the needs and problems that are pertinent to the actual situation of balancing work and childrearing for male and female workers, especially the reason men do not take parental leave and the implementation of a balancing support system for men.

Toward this objective, this survey was designed to assess the need and actual conditions of workers, especially male workers regarding their involvement in childrearing and investigate and analyze the current situation and issues related to balancing work and childrearing. The purpose of this study is to provide useful information for the consideration of further measures to promote the development of an environment that makes it easy to achieve the aforementioned goals.

The flow of the survey is as follows. The main survey is a questionnaire survey targeting companies (the human resources department) and workers (child-rearing group). Prior to this survey, the questionnaire was designed to follow a hypothesis design based on the analysis of existing survey results and hypothesis verification through consultation with experts.
Data Type quantitative research
quantitative research: micro data
Universe <Company questionnaire survey>
Companies that fall under the following
- All industries except agriculture, forestry and fisheries, and public affairs (those not classified elsewhere)
- 51 or more employees

<Worker questionnaire survey>
- Age: 20–49 years
- Employment status: regular employees (including permanent contract employees. Excluded civil servants and workers in agriculture, forestry and fishery industries)
- Age of youngest child: 1 to under 3 years old
Unit of Observation Individual,Organization
Sample Size <Company questionnaire survey>
Number of responses: 694 (response rate: 13.9%)

<Worker questionnaire survey>
- Men who are regular employees: 2,062
- Women who are regular employees: 1,032
Date of Collection <Company questionnaire survey>
September – October 2017

<Worker questionnaire survey>
2017/09/27 – 09/30
Time Period
Spatial Unit
Sampling Procedure <Company questionnaire survey>
Random sampling after selecting 5,000 companies (right side of table) by number of employees (left side of table) from the database of reliable major companies, as follows:
Mode of Data Collection <Company questionnaire survey>
Mail survey

<Worker questionnaire survey>
Internet (monitor) survey
Investigator Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, survey carried out by Mitsubishi UFJ Research & Consulting Co., Ltd.
Sponsors (Funds)
Related Publications (by the Investigator) Please refer to the abstract in Japanese.
Related Publications (based on Secondary Analysis) List of related publications (based on Secondary Analysis)
Documentation Questionnaires [Companies] [Workers]
Major Survey Items [Company questionnaire survey]
(1) Company profile
- Head office location
- Industry
- Number of employees (by regular employees and fixed-term contract workers)
- Ratio of women to total number employees (by regular employees and fixed-term contract workers)
- Status of regular employees (proportion of women among new hires, percentage of regular employees in their 20s and 30s, total monthly working hours for non-managerial employees, percentage of regular employees working 60 hours or more per week, annual paid leave acquisition rate, average years of service by gender, ratio of female managers)
- State of introducing employment management system by course
- State of women's turnover due to marriage and childbirth (by regular employees and fixed-term contract workers)
- Necessity of supporting employees’ achievement of a balance between work and childrearing (by gender)
- Whether the childcare system exceeds the legal requirements/objectives (by gender)

(2) Childbirth/parental leave/leave system
- System status and usage record per the Act on Child Care Leave and Caregiver Leave (by regular employees and fixed-term contract workers)
- Content of parental leave system and short working hour system
- Parental leave acquisition rate (regular employees, fixed-term contract workers, and men and women), reasons women did not take lake, and whether there were men who took it more than once
- Impact of taking the maximum parental leave and shortened working hours on promotion speed (by gender)
- Whether or not there is a work environment that makes it easy to take parental leave (by gender)
- Whether or not there is a male parental leave acquisition rate target and the set target value
- Average rate at which male employees took parental leave in the past three years

(3) Leave system for the childrearing and the state of male workers taking the leave, etc.
- Whether or not a male-specific leave system for childrearing other than parental leave has been introduced, wages when taking leave, number of users
- Purpose of taking leave, start time of acquisition, and acquisition period when a man takes leave for childbirth or childrearing
- Efforts made throughout the entire company and workplace to create an environment where male employees can easily take leave
- Working with male employees to promote male participation in childrearing
- Working with female employees to promote their spouse's participation in childrearing
- Among the leave systems related to a spouse's childbirth and childrearing, the system that the company would like to promote to men in the future
- Barriers and issues with promoting support for balancing work and childrearing among male employees

(4) Promotion of flexible working styles and reduction of working hours, etc.
- Whether or not a system has been introduced independently to promote a flexible work style that contributes to balancing work and childrearing, eligibility to use the system, and the usage record
- Effects of promoting flexible working styles
- Efforts toward work style reforms such as the reduction of working hours and the promotion of flexible work styles and the effectiveness of these efforts

(5) Efforts to balance work and childrearing, etc. in the future
- What strategies are planned to balance work and childrearing in the future?

[Worker questionnaire survey]
(1) Respondents’ attributes
- Gender
- Age
- Number of children
- Child's month and year of birth
- Marital status
- Household family members
- Age and gender of youngest child
- Annual income (respondent’s, spouse’s, household’s)

(2) Current work situation
- Current employment status (respondent’s/spouse’s)
- Industry of workplace, size by number of employees, occupation type, official position
- Actual hours worked per week (respondent’s/spouse’s)
- Working status during midnight hours, number of days off and holidays per month, whether working on Sundays, etc.

(3) Work and family conditions during pregnancy and childbirth of the youngest child
- Whether husband took leave during spouse’s pregnancy
- Whether respondent/wife went to stay at her parent’s home to prepare for and give childbirth
- Continuation of employment from the time when the youngest child was conceived to the present (respondent/spouse)
- Employment status when the youngest child was conceived (respondent’s/spouse’s)
- Respondent’s reason for leaving the job when the youngest child was born

(4) Parental leave and usage of leave for childbirth/childrearing
- Status of taking parental leave or leave for childbirth/childrearing, acquisition period, when the leave was taken
- Degree the leave period matched what respondent desired
- Things respondent did during parental leave
- Reason for taking leave
- Employee- and company-side efforts at the workplace regarding encouraging taking parental leave
- Parental leave and other leave for childbirth/childrearing, changes in husband’s behavior before and after leave
- Reasons for not taking parental leave

(5) Needs related to working styles in order to balance work and childcare without taking a break from work
- Actual usage of the work–life balance support system
- Ingenuity applied to respondent’s work in the interest of efficiency
- Frequency at which the respondent arrives home by 19:00
- Rate of using paid leave
- Desired working style according to life stage, etc.

(6) State of participation in home life and childcare
- Attitude to the division of labor in home life and childrearing (before the youngest child was born/current)
- Housework and childrearing one actually does (respondent/spouse/parent, before the youngest child’s birth/current)
- Time spent on housework and childrearing (respondent/spouse)
Date of Release
Topics in CESSDA Click here for details

Topics in SSJDA Employment/Labor
Version 2019/02/01 :
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