University of Tokyo

Survey Number 0066
Survey Title Survey on Working Hours and Work Patterns, 1994
Depositor JTUC Research Institute for Advancement of Living Standard
(Former Name:Research Institute for Advancement of Living Standards)
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Educational Purpose Only available for research.
Period of Data Use Permission One year
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Nesstar Not available
Summary Shorter work hours have been steadily spreading across Japan, and the progress has led to not only numerical but institutional changes. In particular, forces toward more elastic hours have been activated with the introduction of flextime, variable, and discretional schedules. This trend is closely related to the question of how to conceive our future "way of work." In other words, for work hours to become more and more elastic in a smooth manner, personnel and other systems relevant to the "way of work" need to be improved simultaneously. Such improvements include, for example, expansion of discretion into the substance of work and reconsideration of performance evaluation. In order to find out the meaning of the increasing elasticity for individual employees, this survey focused on the flexible, variable, and discretional systems of work hours and covered unionists subject to such systems. Along with the questionnaires, we also conducted face-to-face interviews with union representatives.
Data Type quantitative research
quantitative research: micro data
Universe Unionists subject to flextime, variable, or discretional arrangements at 56 establishments which are affiliated with JTUC's 21 industrial unions and are operating at least one of the three modes of work hours.
Unit of Observation Individual
Sample Size A sample of 1,120, of whom 609 (54.4%) returned valid responses.
Date of Collection 1994-12-01 ~ 1994-12-01
December, 1994
Time Period 1994 ~ 1994
Spatial Unit
Sampling Procedure In cooperation with the unions organized at the 56 establishments, JTUC-RIALS allocated 20 questionnaires to each establishment.
Mode of Data Collection We distributed self-administered questionnaires via unions, and the respondents mailed them back to the researcher.
Investigator JTUC Research Institute for Advancement of Living Standards
DOI 10.34500/SSJDA.0066
Sponsors (Funds) The Ministry of Labor
Related Publications (by the Investigator) JTUC-RIALS (March, 1995) Shigoto no henka to rodo jikan no danryokuka ni kansuru chosa-kenkyu (Research Study on Changes in Work and Increasing Elasticity of Work Hours).
Related Publications (based on Secondary Analysis) List of related publications (based on Secondary Analysis)
Documentation [Chosa-hyo]
Major Survey Items Demographic items: sex; age; education; marital status; number of regular employees at entire company; workplace industry; divisional affiliation; title; union membership.
Questionnaire items
I Work hours programs at workplace: current mode of work; period when hours became elastic; revision of division of labor and clarification of range of duty in initial period; subsequent changes in actual hours worked; number of days per week when arrival/departure time differs from that of employees working under conventional schedule; current program as applied to work and life; wages (allowances, effect of elasticity); place of work (optional or not, [if optional] options, obligation to report when working outside company); degree of satisfaction with current mode of work; important issues management should tackle; suitability of current mode of work.
II Respondent's job and sphere of duty: 7 questions regarding sphere of responsibility and actual work (or possible factors making hours long); degree of discretion in work.
III Personnel evaluation system at workplace: self-evaluation of performance; recent changes in system; recognition of supervisor's evaluation criteria and measurement; supervisor's account of R's evaluation; effect of personal attitude and private behavior on evaluation; degree of satisfaction with system, its methods of evaluation, and R's evaluation; necessary revisions in system; reasons why evaluation criteria and measurement need to be made public; nature of job and workplace.
Date of Release
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Working conditions
Topics in SSJDA Employment/Labor
Version 1 : 1999-09-20
Notes for Users Data Sets are written in Japanese.