University of Tokyo

Abstract
Survey Number 0100
Survey Title Survey on Work and the Working Environment, 1991
Depositor Research Institute for Advancement of Living Standards
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Summary Major changes have occurred in the environment surrounding Japan's industrial relations and labor unions, including changes in the employment structure (which reflect a shift in the industrial structure from hardware to software or from manufacturing to services), a widespread labor shortage, diversification of the labor market, and changes in the work ethic and attitude especially among young people. And within the shifting environment, the labor organization rate has kept declining and the unorganized have kept expanding. This survey was directed to both organized and unorganized workers to capture dimensions of their work, their workplace environments, and union consciousness. The survey was accompanied by a questionnaire survey of general affairs and personnel managers, which was designed to uncover differences in the working conditions and labor-management communication between organized and unorganized companies. The common objective was to obtain basic data to study conditions for realizing an encouraging workplace environment, factors explaining the decline in the organization rate and countermeasures, as well as the present and future role of labor unions.
Universe (1) Workers at companies where unions are organized. (Here we call them the organized although we included non-unionists in this category.)
(2) Workers at companies where no union is organized.
Those in certain management positions and interest representatives are excluded.
Unit of Observation Individual
Sample Size (1) A sample of 1,330, of whom 847 (63.7%) returned valid responses.
(2) A sample of 2,050, of whom 874 (42.6%) returned valid responses.
Time Period June--July, 1991
Spatial Unit
Sampling Procedure
Mode of Data Collection (1) Self-administered questionnaires, distributed via industrial unions and corporate federations of unions.
(2) Self-administered questionnaires, distributed via industrial unions and corporate federations of unions (Japanese Federation of Electric Machine Worker's Unions; Japanese Federation of Textile, Garment, Chemical, Mercantile, Food and Allied Industries Workers' Unions; Japan Federation of Commercial Workers' Unions; National Union of General Workers; Federation of Gas Workers' Unions of Japan; Federation of All Toyota Workers' Unions; Electric Power Development Union; Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Union; and Ajinomoto Union) as well as Information Industry Associations.
Investigator JTUC Research Institute for Advancement of Living Standards
Sponsors (Funds)
Related Publications (by the Investigator) JTUC-RIALS (January, 1992) Rodo kumiai eno kitai to koka (Expectations toward and Effects of Labor Unions)
Related Publications (based on Secondary Analysis) List of related publications (based on Secondary Analysis)
Documentation [Soshiki rodosha Chosa-hyo][Misoshiki rodosha Chosa-hyo]
Major Survey Items Questionnaires are slightly different between to (1) and (2).
Demographic items:
Sex; age; education; occupation; seniority; number of jobs switched; annual income; form of employment; firm's industry and number of employees.
Questionnaire items:
(1) Questionnaire for the organized
Degree of satisfaction with workplace; problem solving at workplace; request on wage determinants; personnel evaluation; use of personnel evaluation; attitude to wage gaps; attitude to job switching; work and living expenses; competition with others; worthiness; relationship between work and private life; union membership; reasons for joining union and membership dues; main reasons for not joining union; union office held; union-management relations; evaluation of union activities; necessity of union and its reasons; issues Respondent expects union to tackle; what if union disappears; problems of running union organization; attitude to non-regular workers' gaining membership; images of union.
(2) Questionnaire for the unorganized
Degree of satisfaction with workplace; problem solving at workplace; request on wage determinants; personnel evaluation; use of personnel evaluation; attitude to wage gaps; attitude to job switching; work and living expenses; competition with others; worthiness; relationship between work and private life; availability of workers' club/association; activity of workers' club/association; necessity of union and its reasons; reasons why no union is organized; issues Respondent expects union to tackle; what if union is organized; attitude to non-regular workers' gaining union membership; images of union.
Date of Release 1999/10/04
Version Registered on October 4, 1999.
Topics Employment/Labor
Notes for Users Data Sets are written in Japanese.