University of Tokyo

Abstract
Survey Number 0148
Survey Title Survey of Issues associated with the Realization of Working Time of 1,800 Hours, 1998
Depositor Research Institute for Advancement of Living Standards
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Summary Today, it is widely recognized in Japan that the reduction of working hours is an essential task in realizing a more relaxed and richer life. The government, labor and management are each making efforts to reduce the annual working hours down to 1,800 hours. The actual working hours had shown a constant decline and were reduced down to 1,904 hours in the fiscal year 1994, however, they have been slightly increased thereafter. Only 50 some percent of employees take an annual paid holiday; constant overtime work is also a problem. This survey of union members clarifies the efforts independently made by the workers to reduce the working hours and the obstacles they have faced along the way. Survey of time management and employment of people in their 60s is conducted at the same time this survey was conducted, so that both surveys could be analyzed together.
Universe Trade unions, which belong to the 12 industrial unions under RENGO.
Unit of Observation Organization
Sample Size A sample of 600 trade unions, of which 423 (70.5%) returned effective responses.
Time Period January - February 1998
Spatial Unit
Sampling Procedure
Mode of Data Collection
Investigator JTUC (Rengo) Research Institute for Advancement of Living Standards
Sponsors (Funds) The Ministry of Labor
Related Publications (by the Investigator) JTUC-RIALS (March 1998) Yutori aru Shuro to Yutakana Seikatsu Jikan ni Kansuru Chosa Kenkyu Hokokusho (Report on the Survey of Employment for Affluence rather than Necessity and Satisfactory Time Management)
Related Publications (based on Secondary Analysis) List of related publications (based on Secondary Analysis)
Documentation [Chosa-hyo]
Major Survey Items (1) business type, number of regular workers..
(2) current working hours: form of holiday system; average annual working hours, average annual overtime working hours.
(3) various systems and problems in applying those systems: [annual paid holiday system] extent to which workers utilize the system, extent to which workers utilize the system today in comparison to the extent to which they utilized the system 5 years ago, barriers attributable to the under utilization of the annual paid holiday system. [special holiday system] introduction of sick leave system and the its abstract, introduction of the system of buying the annual paid holiday and its abstract, introduction of the system of paid holiday on a hourly basis and its abstract, introduction of an accumulated holiday system and its abstract, introduction of the holiday system for education and training and its abstract, special holiday system's impact on the reduction of working hours. [overtime working hours] percentage of the wage paid for overtime work in one's monthly salary, factors hampering the reduction of overtime working hours. [introduction of the measures taken for flexible management of working hours and their impact] introduction of flexible working hours system and the extent to which the system is utilized; introduction of discretional working hours system and the workers covered under this system; impact of these systems in reducing working hours.
(4) managers' consciousness of overtime work and holidays.
(5) union members' consciousness of working hours.
(6) current and future policies aimed to reducing working hours: promoting the employees to take paid holidays, reduction of overtime working hours.
Date of Release 2000/08/01
Version Registered on August 1, 2000.
Topics Employment/Labor
Notes for Users Data Sets are written in Japanese.