University of Tokyo

Abstract
Survey Number 0158
Survey Title Survey on State of New Business Start-ups, 1999
Depositor Japan Finance Corporation Research Institute
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Educational Purpose Only available for research.
Period of Data Use Permission One year
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Summary The Japanese economy in the 1990s has suffered a recession unprecedented in duration. Firms, ridden with excessive debts, manpower, and facilities and equipment have cut back on staff under the name of restructuring. As a result, unemployment rose and consumption has stagnated in fear of loss of employment. Against the background, expectations toward new businesses and industries have grown more and more as an ultimate means to maintain a viable economy and society over time. The major reform of the Minor Enterprises Act in November, 1999, has testified the expected role of small and mid-size companies as a generator of original technologies and services. Since 1969 our Institute has conducted surveys to clarify the current state of new start-ups from various perspectives, and since 1991 the Institute has published an annual white paper to show the findings. This 1999 survey revolves around a topic of the present and future of public and private support of new starters. In particular, it reveals that the ratio of middle-aged starters has increased and that aspirations for wider business and more income have dwindled. (The 1999 survey was accompanied by face-to-face interviews with 54 new start-ups.)
Universe Companies which were, among others NLFC financed between April and September, 1998, either less then one year old or before opening at the time of financing.
Unit of Observation Individual,Organization
Sample Size A sample of 7,304 companies, of which 1,682 (23.0%) responded.
Time Period 1999/09/01
Spatial Unit All over Japan
Sampling Procedure See Subjects above.
Mode of Data Collection Self-administered questionnaires by mail
Investigator NLFC Research Institute
Sponsors (Funds)
Related Publications (by the Investigator) NLFC Research Institute (ed) (July, 2000) Shinki kaigyo hakusho: Heisei 12-nen ban: Minori aru sogyo shien ni mukete (The 2000 White Paper on New Start-ups: Toward a fruitful support system). Chusho Kigyo Risachi Senta (The Medium and Small Business Research Center, Inc.)
Related Publications (based on Secondary Analysis) List of related publications (based on Secondary Analysis)
Documentation [Chosa-hyo]
Major Survey Items (1) Business profile: industry; business line; business characteristics and selling points; form of enterprise (at start and at present); methods of publicizing business line; type of company.
(2) Management: sex; last school attended; number of jobs held before start; whether Respondent had held a job in the same area; (if yes) number of years R held it; occupation prior to start (whether the firm was listed or not, industry, number of employees).
(3) Path to business: date of start; R's age when s/he began preparation; age at start; occasion which led R to his/her own business; most important matters at start.
(4) Initial funds: initial funds and their sources; repayment and dividends.
(5) Business seeds and management knowledge: means of acquiring business seeds and their levels; means of acquiring management knowledge; management knowledge insufficient at start; use of external organizational support systems and services for acquiring management knowledge (whether R used such systems and services, type of system and service, type of external organization, how R came to know external organizations, usefulness, satisfactory matters, matters to be improved, reasons for not having used such systems and services, intention for future use).
(6) Initial support R received from small and mid-size companies: initial hardships; type of support R received; reasons why they supported; R's response to new starter's request for support.
(7) Business developments: number of employees at start and at present; initial monthly sales target; current monthly sales turnover; shifts in sales; current balance; period when business overcame deficits; future intentions (business size, going to public); degree of satisfaction with current business.
Date of Release 2000/08/30
Version Registered on August 30, 2000.
Topics Economy/Industry/Management
Notes for Users Data Sets are written in Japanese.