University of Tokyo

Abstract
Survey Number 0530
Survey Title Nation-wide Longitudinal Survey Study on Voting Behavior in the Early 21st Century, 2001-2005
Depositor JES III Research Project
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Summary This study covers all of the national elections that occurred during the Koizumi Government using a pre-post panel design. The Elections we focused on were the 2001 and 2004 elections for the House of Councilors, the 2003 and 2005 elections for the House of Representatives, and the 2003 Unified Local Elections. The panel continues for a span of 5 years using originally randomly sampled 3,000 nationwide identical targets.

The project aims at inheriting the legacies of the following Japanese voting studies occurring since the 1970s: 1976 JABISS (by Flanagan, Kohei, Miyake, Richardson, and Watanuki), 1983 JES (by Watanuki, Miyake, Inoguchi, and Kabashima), and the 1993-1997 JES II project (by Ikuo Kabashima, Joji Watanuki, Ichiro Miyake, Yoshiaki Kobayashi, and Ken'ichi Ikeda).

The project also adds the following research themes: 1. Causal analyses regarding the effects of the election system reform; 2. Analyses of Japanese characteristics in volunteer organizations and social communication in terms of political engagement; 3. Investigation of reevaluations of rational choice in election participation and voting behavior; 4. Measuring the effects of the governmental/government party's economic achievements towards voting behavior; 5. Investigating a social psychological model of the dynamics involved in the changes of party cognition; 6. Analyses of the affects of socially shared information formation (the foundation of public opinions) on voting behavior.
Universe Male and Female over 20 years of age, living in Japan
Unit of Observation Individual
Sample Size [1st Survey: before the election of House of Councilors 2001 (a-wave)] 2,061 (68.7%)
[2nd Survey: after the election of House of Councilors 2001 (b-wave)] 1,253
  Total sample <3,000> 41.8%
  a-wave: Interviewed <2,061> 60.8%
  b-wave: Telephone Number notified <1,585> 79.1%
  * Respondents participated in both of a-wave and b-waves: 1,253

[3rd Survey: before the 2003 Unified Local Election survey (c-wave)] 1,188 (39.6%)

[4th Survey: before the election of House of Representatives 2003 (d-wave)] 2,162 (57.5%)
[5th Survey: after the election of House of Representatives 2003 (e-wave)] 2,268 (63.5%)
  * Respondents participated in both of d-wave and e-waves: 1,769

[6th Survey: before the election of House of Councilors 2004 (g-wave)] 2,115 (56.6%)
[7th Survey: after the election of House of Councilors 2004 (h-wave)] 1,977 (76.8%)
  * Respondents participated in both of g-wave and h-waves: 1,810

[8th Survey: before the election of House of Representatives 2005 (j-wave)] 1,504 (70.5%)
[9th Survey: after the election of House of Representatives 2005 (k-wave)] 1,498 (86.3%)
  * Respondents participated in both of j-wave and k-waves: 1,416

Throughout the whole JES3 face-to-face interviews (7 times, excluding phone and mail surveys), 523 participated all waves, 1,053 participated 6 times or more, and 1,345 participated 5 times or more.
Time Period [a-wave] July 19th - 28th, 2001
[b-wave] August 1st - 5th, 2001
[c-wave] March 12th - April 12th, 2003
[d-wave] October 29th - November 8th, 2003
[e-wave] November 11th - 25th, 2003
[g-wave] July 1st - 10th, 2004
[h-wave] July 15th - 26th , 2004
[j-wave] September 1st - 10th, 2005
[k-wave] September 15th - 26th, 2005
Spatial Unit Nationwide
Sampling Procedure [1st Survey (a-wave)]
 Layered two-stage random sampling
 Total samples : 3,000 ( 201 sites x 15 persons in average)
 Sampling ledger: Resident registry or voter lists

[2nd Survey (b-wave)]
 Samples : 1,585
 (Out of 1st survey respondents, phone number notified)

[3rd Survey (c-wave)]
 Layered two-stage random sampling
 Sampling ledger: Resident registry or voter lists
 Total samples: 3,000
  1st survey respondents: 2,061
  Additional samples : 939

[4th Survey (d-wave)]
 Layered two-stage random sampling
 Sampling ledger: Resident registry or voter lists
 Total samples: 3,759
  Out of 3,000; 1st survey respondents: 2,061
   Added for 3rd survey : 273 (plus)
   Newly added samples : 666 (plus)
  Reserve samples : 759
  (Used when the response rate within the unit was below 60%)

[5th Survey (e-wave)]
 Layered two-stage random sampling
 Sampling ledger: Resident registry or voter lists
 Total samples: 3,573
  Out of 3,000 ; 1st survey respondents: 2,061
   Added for 3rd survey : 273 (plus)
   Added for 4th survey : 822 (plus)
   Excluded, who rejected to participate in advance: 800 (minus)
   Newly added samples: 644
  Reserved samples: 573
  (Used when the response rate within the unit was below 60%)

[6th Survey (g-wave)]
 Layered two-stage random sampling
 Sampling ledger: Resident registry or voter lists
  ( Planned to keep adequate balance in age groups)
 Total samples: 3,735
  Panel samples: 2,614 (1st , 3rd, 4th, and 5th survey respondents)
  Newly added samples: 1,121

[7th Survey (h-wave)]
 6th survey respondents, and newly added samples for 6th survey
 Total samples: 2,575
  Respondents continued : 2,337
  Newly added sample: 238

[8th Survey (j-wave)]
 Layered two-stage random sampling
 Sampling ledger: Resident registry or voter lists
 Sample number: 2,134
  Respondents of 6th survey: 2,115
  Respondents of 7th, but not for 6th survey: 167 (plus)
  Excluded who rejected further participation on 6th /7th survey: 148 (minus)

[9th Survey (k-wave)]
 Sample number: 1,735
  (Excluded those who showed previous strong rejection)
Mode of Data Collection [1st Survey (a-wave)] Interviewed individually
[2nd Survey (b-wave)] Telephoned
[3rd Survey (c-wave)] Mailed questionnaires
  Sites: Nationwide, Tokyo, Ibaraki/Okinawa (3 types)
  Newly added and continued respondents for each sites above
[4th Survey (d-wave)] Interviewed individually
[5th Survey (d-wave)] Interviewed individually
[6th Survey (d-wave)] Interviewed individually
[7th Survey (d-wave)] Interviewed individually
[8th Survey (d-wave)] Interviewed individually
[9th Survey (d-wave)] Interviewed individually
Investigator Principal investigator: Ken'ichi Ikeda (Professor, Graduate School of Humanities and Sociology, The University of Tokyo), Investigator: Yoshiaki Kobayashi(Professor, Faculty of Law, Keio University), Investigator: Hiroshi Hirano(Professor, Faculty of Law, Gakushuin University)
Sponsors (Funds) The project is supported by Specially Promoted Research on Science (Ministry of Education & Sciences), 2001-2005 school year (Project Number 13001001)
Related Publications (by the Investigator)
Related Publications (based on Secondary Analysis) List of related publications (based on Secondary Analysis)
Documentation [a-wave]
[b-wave]
[c-wave_National]
[c-wave_Tokyo]
[c-wave_Ibaraki/Okinawa]
[d-wave]
[e-wave]
[g-wave]
[h-wave]
[j-wave]
[k-wave]
Major Survey Items The 2001 House of Councilors Election surveys

1. Recognition of candidates (for each election district), emotional temperature, and will to vote.
2. Evaluation of parties, party support, feeling thermometer toward parties, and parties to vote for.
3. Evaluation of Cabinet achievements, expectation for achievement, recognition and emotion towards the Prime Minister, approval of Cabinet.
4. Recognition of election issues, and distance between recognition of each party's position and respondent's on election issues, ideology.
5.Knowledge on government, interest in politics, political efficacy, apathy, authoritarianism, trust.
6. Recognition of economic circumstances (public, personal), evaluation of economic achievements
7. Public disposition, cognition of daily goals, values in terms of materialism and post-materialism, inequality
8. Social network battery as measuring interpersonal political information environment
9. Use of each type of mass media and use of Internet as recognition of political information environment
10. Political engagement during elections
11. Mobilization of campaigns during elections.
12. Demographics of respondent(Gender, age, birth date, occupation, year of residency, annual household income, etc.)

The 2003 Unified Local Election survey

1. Intention to participate, and awareness of state of affairs of the unified local elections
2. Party evaluation, support, and feeling thermometers, intended party to vote for, important matters in election
3. Evaluation of Cabinet achievements, expectation of achievement, approval of Cabinet
4. Voting history for the past elections
5. Recognition of national issues and distance between recognition of each parties'position and respondent's on national issues, ideology
6. Recognition of economic circumstances (public, personal), evaluation of economic achievements
7. Participation in groups, political information flows in groups
8. Indices of social networks
9. Use of media in terms of recognition of political information environment
10. Demographics of respondent Asked only to new sample. Gender, age, birth date, occupation, year of residency, annual household income

The 2003 House of Representative Election surveys

Pre-election (d-wave)

1. Intention to participate, and awareness of state of affairs of the House of Representatives elections
2. Recognition of the candidates and feeling thermometer toward them
3. Party evaluation, support, and feeling thermometers, schema for political party, intended party to vote for, important matters in election
4. Feeling thermometer for major politicians
5. Evaluation of Cabinet achievements, expectation of achievement, approval of Cabinet, open ended form for the ministry
6. Voting history for the past elections
7. Recognition of national issues and distance between recognition of each parties' position and respondent's on national issues, ideology
8. Recognition of economic circumstances (public, personal), evaluation of economic achievements
9. Knowledge on government, interest in politics, political efficacy, apathy, authoritarianism, trust
10. Public disposition, cognition of daily goals, values in terms of materialism and post-materialism, inequality
11. Social network battery as measuring interpersonal political information environment
12. Use of each type of mass media and use of internet as recognition of political information environment
13. Demographics of respondent for new entry samples(Gender, age, birth date, occupation, year of residency, annual household income, etc.)

Post-election (e-wave)

1. Votes, the candidate and the party voted for (constituency, proportional representation constituency), the date of the decision, and the reason
2. Evaluations for the turnout of the election of the House of Representative, evaluations for the new electoral system
3. Persuasion for others during the campaign, being persuaded by others, participation for the campaign, participation for the sponsorships
4. Party valuation by own, and by media, evaluation of public benefit
5. Participation for social activities, and political activities
6. Participation in groups, political information flows in groups
7. Political efficacy, trust in politics and social institution, evaluation and satisfaction to democracy
8. Issue importance and evaluation of government's response, evaluation of government's spending on individual policies
9. Knowledge and evaluations for current events
10. Common political tolerance
11. Use of each type of mass media and use of internet in terms of recognition of political information environment.
12. Demographics of respondent for new entry samples(Gender, age, birth date, in order to confirm consistent member of the household responds the survey.)

The 2004 House of Councilors Election surveys
Pre-election (g-wave)

1. Recognition of the candidates and feeling thermometer toward them
2. Party evaluation, support, and feeling thermometers, schema for political party, intended party to vote for, important matters in election
3. Feeling thermometer for major politicians
4. Evaluation of Cabinet achievements, expectation of achievement, approval of Cabinet, open ended form for the Prime Minister
5. Voting history for the past elections
6. Recognition of national issues and distance between recognition of each party's position and respondent's on national issues, ideology
7. Recognition of economic circumstances (public, personal), evaluation of economic achievements
8. Political knowledge, interest in politics, political efficacy, and trust
9. Public disposition, cognition of daily goals, values in terms of materialism and post-materialism, inequality
10. Social network battery as measuring interpersonal political information environment
11. Use of each type of mass media and use of internet as recognition of political information environment
12. Demographics of respondent for new entry samples(Gender, age, birth date, occupation, year of residency, annual household income, etc.)

Post-election (h-wave)

1. Votes, the candidate and the party voted for (constituency, proportional representation constituency), the date of the decision, and the reason
2. Evaluations for the turnout of the election of the House of Councilors
3. Persuasion for others during the campaign, being persuaded by others, participation for the campaign, and participation for the sponsorships
4. Participation for social activities, and political activities
5. Political efficacy, trust in politics and social institution, evaluation and satisfaction with democracy
6. Issue opinions and evaluation of government's spending on individual policies
7. Knowledge and evaluations for current events
8. Common political tolerance
9. Use of each type of mass media during the campaign
10. CSES 2 battery items (http://www.umich.edu/~cses/)
11. Demographics of respondent for CSES2

The 2005 House of Representatives Election surveys

Pre-election (j-wave)

1. Recognition of the candidates and feeling thermometer toward them
2. Party evaluation, support, and feeling thermometers, schema for political party, intended party to vote for, important matters in election
3. Feeling thermometer for major politicians
4. Evaluation of Cabinet achievements, expectation of achievement, approval of Cabinet, open ended form for the Prime Minister
5. Voting history for the past elections
6. Recognition of national issues and distance between recognition of each party's position and respondent's on national issues, ideology
7. Recognition of economic circumstances (public, personal), evaluation of economic achievements
8. Political knowledge, interest in politics, political efficacy, and trust
9. Public disposition, cognition of daily goals, values in terms of materialism and post-materialism, risk avoidance, apathy, authoritarianism, trust
10. Social network battery as measuring interpersonal political information environment
11.Use of each type of mass media and use of internet as recognition of political information environment
12.Demographics of respondent for new entry samples(Gender, age, birth date, occupation, year of residency, annual household income, etc.)

Post-election (k-wave)

1. Votes, the candidate and the party voted for (constituency, proportional representation constituency), the date of the decision, and the reason
2. Evaluations for the turnout of the election of the House of Councilors
3. Persuasion for others during the campaign, being persuaded by others, participation for the campaign, and participation for the sponsorships
4. Participation for social activities, and political activities
5. Evaluation of Koizumi's reform from egocentric/ sociotropic viewpoints
6. Political efficacy, trust in politics and social institution
7. Opinions for various traditional issues
8. Political and social issue participation, social participation with perceptions of associations/ groups of affiliation
9. Diversity of personal network, position generator, perceived self-position in the social strata
10. Knowledge on government
11. Common political tolerance (opinion on dissension, intolerance toward heterogeneous others, intolerance toward foreigners, perceptions and opinions on foreigners in Japan)
12. Experience of local currency use.
13. Demographic variables
Date of Release 2007/04/02
Version Registered on April 2, 2007
Topics Politics/Administration/Election
Notes for Users Data sets are prepared in Japanese and English. This is the betaversion.