University of Tokyo

Survey Number 0604
Survey Title Asia/Europe Survey (ASES), 2000
Depositor Takashi Inoguchi
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Period of Data Use Permission One year
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Summary The Asia-Europe Survey (ASES) is a public opinion poll that was conducted in 18 Asian and European countries in fall 2000 as the “Theoretical and empirical study of democratic dysfunction,” supported by 1999–2002 Grants-in-Aid for Specially Promoted Research (principal investigator:Takashi Inoguchi [Institute for Advanced Studies on Asia, The University of Tokyo (at time of survey)], sub-investigator:Ikuo Kabashima, research collaborator:Jean Blondell, Ian Marsh, Richard Sinnott).

It has been a long time since democratic dysfunction was pointed out. The common understanding has generally been that democracy is not necessarily the ideal form of government but that it is the best of all the forms of government available, and studies have been actively pursued worldwide as to how democratic governments function. In terms of common problems found in these studies, first, they tend to be strongly focused on a single country and weak in drawing comparisons with forms of government greatly different in history and culture. Second, although there are many comparative studies, most of the comparisons are of advanced democracies. The previous status quo in which democracy was centered on advanced nations is facing serious problems when more than half of democracies are found in developing countries today.

The purpose of this study is to determine how democratic dysfunction is recognized in the Asia-Pacific region (a total of 9 countries: Japan, South Korea, China, and 6 member countries of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations [ASEAN]) and 18 Eurasian continental countries in Western Europe (9 European Union [EU] countries); in other words, inquire how democracy’s legitimacy and efficiency are recognized in a way that can be internationally compared and analyzed and present answers that can be supported by empirical data. This study is intended to go beyond those focused on a single nation or only advanced nations and make direct international comparisons, including not only advanced and developing democratic systems but also the systems by which democratization occurs.

Similarly, another purpose of this study is to fully address democratic dysfunction as one of the most important problems today and take a lead in international academic research. Overall, the plan is to aggressively take the intellectual, organizational, and financial initiative and make a strong impression overseas.

Conceptually, this study was constructed along two key propositions.
ⅠWhether or not democracy functions well depends on how citizens are connected to larger society.
Ⅱ Whether or not democracy functioning depends upon globalization is ultimately undermining domestic democratic systems.
More specifically, the following format was established, and a standard questionnaire in English was created and then translated into the languages of each surveyed country.
Ⅰ-1 Identification with larger social entities such as nations
Ⅰ-2 Extent of trust in social systems such as national assemblies, courts, political parties, and mass media
Ⅰ-3 Satisfaction with daily life and society
Ⅱ-1 Impact of globalization felt in daily life
Ⅱ-2 Impact of globalization felt by society overall
Ⅱ-3 Impact of globalization felt by democracy
Data Type quantitative research: micro data
Universe Men and women aged 18 to 79 years in each surveyed country
Unit of Observation Individual
Sample Size Sample size from each surveyed country: 800 people
Date of Collection 2000-10 ~ 2000-12
Japan - October 2000
South Korea - October 2000
China - October 2000
Taiwan - October to November 2000
Singapore - October to November 2000
Malaysia - November to December 2000
Indonesia - October to November 2000
Thailand - October 2000
Philippines - October 2000
United Kingdom - October 2000
Ireland - October 2000
France - October to November 2000
Germany - October to November 2000
Sweden - October to November 2000
Italy - October 2000
Spain - October 2000
Portugal - October to November 2000
Greece - October to November 2000
Time Period 2000 ~ 2000
Spatial Unit Japan
Korea, Republic of
Taiwan, Province of China
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
Japan - Nationwide
South Korea - Nationwide
China - Eight cities (Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Chongqing, Xi’an, Nanjing, Dalian, Qingdao)
Taiwan - Nationwide
Singapore - Nationwide
Malaysia - Peninsular only
Indonesia - Java island only
Thailand - Nationwide
Philippines - Nationwide (excluding Mindanao island)
United Kingdom - Nationwide (excluding Northern Ireland)
Ireland - Nationwide
France - Nationwide
Germany - Nationwide
Sweden - Nationwide
Italy - Nationwide
Spain - Nationwide
Portugal - Nationwide
Greece - Nationwide
Sampling Procedure Probability: Stratified
Probability: Stratified: Proportional
Probability: Cluster
Probability: Multistage
Non-probability: Quota
Japan - Multistage random cluster sampling
South Korea - Multistage random sampling  
China - Probability proportionate sampling
Taiwan - Based on urban village (“li”) administrative units. First, urban villages were randomly selected. Then, interviewers were selected five at a time per each urban village. Contact is made at least three times.
Singapore - Divided into public housing complexes and homeowners with private land. Interviewees were selected by a Kish Grid randomized method.
Malaysia - Multistage probability sampling
Indonesia - Random (By Kish Grid)
Thailand - Multistage random cluster
Philippines - Random multistage probability proportionate sampling
United Kingdom - Quotas based on region/age/socioeconomic status
Ireland - Multistage probability sampling
France - Multistage probability sampling
Germany - Multistage probability sampling
Sweden - Multistage probability sampling
Italy - Proportional stratified sampling
Spain - Multistage stratified random sampling
Portugal - Quotas based on gender/age/socioeconomic status
Greece - Quotas based on administrative region and urbanization. In each region, every three buildings per urban district, every two buildings per intermediate district, and every household in rural areas were visited. Each household was surveyed according to gender and age.
Mode of Data Collection Face-to-face interview
Interviews by survey staff in each surveyed country

Questionnaires were prepared with the cooperation of researchers in Asia and Europe, and the standard questionnaire prepared in English was translated by survey companies in each country into local languages and then back-translated to prepared questionnaires for actual use.

The languages used were as follows.
 Japan - Japanese
 South Korea - Korean
 China - Beijing dialect Mandarin Chinese
 Taiwan - Taiwanese Hokkien Chinese
 Singapore - Malay, Chinese, English
 Malaysia - Malay, Chinese, English
 Indonesia - Indonesian
 Thailand - Thai
 Philippines - Tagalog, Ilocano, Visayan
 United Kingdom - English
 Ireland - English
 France - French
 Germany - German
 Sweden - Swedish
 Italy - Italian
 Spain - Spanish
 Portugal - Portuguese
 Greece - Greek
Investigator Principal investigator:Takashi Inoguchi (Institute for Advanced Studies on Asia, The University of Tokyo)
The field survey was conducted by the Gallup International network, coordinated by the Nippon Research Center. Details are as follows.
 Japan - Nippon Research Center
 South Korea - Gallup Korea
 China - Institute of Journalism and Communication, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences
 Taiwan – Public Opinion Poll Taiwan
 Singapore - Taylor Nelson Sofres
 Malaysia - Taylor Nelson Sofres
 Indonesia - Taylor Nelson Sofres
 Thailand - CSN Research Group
 Philippines - Asia Research Organization
 United Kingdom - Research International
 Ireland - Irish Marketing Surveys
 France - Taylor Nelson Sofres
 Germany - Emnid Institut
 Sweden - Shifo
 Italy - Doxa
 Spain - Quota Union
 Portugal - Sigma Dos
 Greece - Research International

DOI 10.34500/SSJDA.0604
Sponsors (Funds) Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research
Related Publications (by the Investigator) Please refer to the abstract in Japanese.
Related Publications (based on Secondary Analysis) List of related publications (based on Secondary Analysis)
Documentation [Japanese Language Questionnaire][ASES_Questionnaire]
Major Survey Items (1) Identity
What respondent considers their nationality, nationality, importance to respondent of his or her nationality/any changes in past 10 years, whether respondent believes Japan/Japanese people are respected by foreigners/any changes in past 10 years, whether Japan/Japanese people are treated fairly in international politics/economics/any changes in past 10 years, group identification other than nationality, supranational identification/importance thereof/any changes in past 10 years, what is important to be Japanese (citizenship, Japanese language, feeling Japanese, being born Japanese), pride of being from respondent’s country, degree of pride in Japan (democratic systems, political influence in the world, social welfare, economic performance, military)

(2) Trust
Trust in Japanese government/institutions (Diet, political parties, government, legal system and courts, political leaders, police, government and municipal offices/public offices, Self-Defense Forces, major corporations, mass media), trust in world organizations/institutions (major foreign corporations, the United Nations (UN), the World Trade Organization (WTO), the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), the World Bank, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and Japan/South Korea/China), name of current Japanese Minister of Foreign Affairs, current five members of the UN Security Council

(3) Thoughts on society
Thoughts on society and government/elections (8 items), worries about life/Japan/the world (work, health, family life, community, Japan, world affairs), changes in Japan’s situation over the past 10 years, changes in global affairs over the past 10 years, worries about Japan/assessment of response of Japanese government (economy, political corruption, human rights issues, unemployment problems, crime, quality of administrative services, immigration, ethnic conflict, religious conflict, environmental problems), whether Japan’s problems are from domestic or global causes (economic problems, unemployment problems, environmental problems), thoughts on state of Japanese society (6 items)

(4) Influence of globalization
Influence of globalization on daily life (8 items), whether globalization is actually “Americanization,” changes over the past five years in the importance of problems facing Japan and the world (human rights issues, environmental problems, women’s rights issues, unemployment problems, developing country problems, refugee and immigrant problems, risk of war with other Asian countries, risk of war in non-Asian countries), solutions to problems facing Japan and the world/whether it should be done bilaterally or multilaterally, information on foreign countries and interaction with foreigners (9 items), thoughts on the state of society (7 items) (competition, social welfare, Japanese government, management of the country, economic problems and government intervention, etc.).

(5) Thoughts/behavior regarding politics/elections
Degree of influence of organizations and institutions on daily life (Japanese government, ASEAN and Japan/South Korea/China/UN/multinational corporations), degree of interest in politics, political viewpoints (conservative/progressive), importance of conservative/progressive political thinking, degree of experience in political activity (11 items), voting behavior in Diet elections, voting behavior in local elections, political parties with which respondent feels sense of affinity, political party voted for in most recent Diet election, overall degree of satisfaction with Japanese politics, general thoughts (7 items) (income equality, economic growth and environmental protection, role of women, individual assertions and social cooperation, opinions of experienced older people, social benefits and family, society and self)

(6) Attributes, etc.
Media used to obtain information on politics, overall degree of satisfaction with current life, level of English ability, frequency of going to church/paying homage to temples, religion, gender, age, household family members, highest level of educational attainment, number of years of formal education, employment status, occupation, whether government and municipal offices, public offices or private corporation, whether or not belonging to labor union, presence of unemployment experience in the past 10 years, household standard of living, annual household income, race/ethnicity

(7) Japanese political parties
Political party voted for in a recent single-member district election, political party voted for in a recent proportional representation election, type of administration desired, etc.
Date of Release 2008/11/19
Topics in CESSDA Click here for details

Political behaviour and attitudes
Political ideology
Cultural and national identity
Social conditions and indicators
Topics in SSJDA International Comparison/Diplomacy
Version 1 : 2008-11-19
Notes for Users