University of Tokyo

Survey Number 0681
Survey Title Questionnaire Survey on Use of Time, 2007
Depositor JTUC Research Institute for Advancement of Living Standards
(Former Name:Research Institute for Advancement of Living Standards)
Restriction of Use For detailed information, please refer to 'For Data Users' at SSJDA website.

- Apply to SSJDA. SSJDA's approval required.
Educational Purpose Available for both research and instructional purposes.
Period of Data Use Permission One year
Access to Datasets Download
SSJDA Data Analysis Not available
Summary This survey sought to elucidate the actual state and problems of Japanese workers’ time use and attitudes to life through international comparison, to search out recent trends in changes, and to examine policy issues from the viewpoint of improving work-life balance and quality of life, based on the results of a past survey conducted by Rengo Research Institute for Advancement of Living Standards (RENGO-RIALS) and recent research into time use.

Here, a “research committee for international comparison of time use” (Chief Examiner: Kaoru Sato, The University of Tokyo) was established within RENGO-RIALS in October 2006 as a joint survey study of the Japanese Trade Union Confederation (RENGO) and RENGO-RIALS, and a survey was planned and implemented.

Major differences from the past two (1990 and 1996) surveys of “international comparison of time use” are that while the previous two surveys were comparison of Japan with the advanced nations of Europe and America, this time, South Korea, an Asian nation with situation similar to Japan, has been added in an attempt to better clarify Japan’s position in the world in comparison to the United States, France, and South Korea. Furthermore, the survey was conducted with married spouses/couples as units, obtaining the same number of responses from women as men in an attempt to better identify the actual state of gender imbalances in time use. An attempt has also been made to analyze the relationship of time use not only to time resource but other resources needed to live, such as income, social capital (human connections), and social services.
Data Type quantitative research
quantitative research: micro data
Universe Employed workers younger than 50 years of age and their spouses living in urban areas in the 4 countries of Japan, United States, France, and South Korea
Unit of Observation Individual
Sample Size Number of valid responses (men and women)
Japan 418 couples (836 people)
United States 400 couples (800 people)
France 412 couples (824 people)
South Korea 400 couples (800 people)
Date of Collection 2007-11-02 ~ 2007-11-30
Time Period 2007 ~ 2007
Spatial Unit tokyo
United States of America
Korea, Republic of
Japan: Tokyo, Kanagawa, Saitama, and Chiba prefectures
United States: States of New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania
France: Suburban Paris
South Korea: Seoul, Gyeonggi-do (province surrounding Seoul)
Sampling Procedure Non-probability: Quota
Survey subjects were people registered with survey companies and comprised 400 married employees of private companies younger than 50 years of age (200 men and women each cohabiting with spouses, excluding widows or widowers) and their 400 spouses living in surveyed regions.

[Japan, United States, France]
- Relevant people registered with survey companies carrying out the survey were asked to participate by e-mail
- When checking fulfillment of preset gender and age quotas, relevant people of groups below their quotas were asked again to participate.

[South Korea]
- Relevant people registered with a survey company were subject to telephone surveys (preliminary surveys), then subjects that agreed to participate as couples were sent a survey URL and asked to participate.
Mode of Data Collection Self-administered questionnaire: Web-based (CAWI)
Internet survey by people registered with survey companies (indicated below)

The same questionnaire was given to respondents and their spouses.

Languages were Japan: Japanese, United States: English, France: French, South Korea: Korean.
Questionnaires were first translated from Japanese to English, then subsequently translated from English into French and Korean.
Investigator Research Institute for Advancement of Living Standards and Japanese Trade Union Confederation
Survey carried out by:
 Japan: Nippon Research Center Ltd.
 United States and France: IPSOS Observer
 South Korea: Embrain Co, Ltd.

DOI 10.34500/SSJDA.0681
Sponsors (Funds)
Related Publications (by the Investigator) Please refer to the abstract in Japanese.
Related Publications (based on Secondary Analysis) List of related publications (based on Secondary Analysis)
Documentation [Questionnaire]
Major Survey Items The survey format involved people registered with survey companies and their spouses each individually responding to question items. Bracketed [ ] text after questions indicated whether a question item was only for the registered people or their spouse.

(1) Individual attributes
Gender [spouse], age [spouse], highest level of educational attainment, number of cohabitants/relationships, number of cohabiting children by age group

(2) Employment
Whether or not respondent has income-earning job [spouse], current employment status or employment status before taking a leave from work [spouse], current occupation/industry, workplace size by number of employees, whether or not member of labor union, whether or not respondent has experience of changing jobs after graduating from school/number of times

(3) Time use – work
Average number of working days per week, scheduled working hours per week, mode of work, situation of work day (respond in 24-hour time: time leaving home/time arriving at work/work starting time/working time/time leaving work/time returning home/time spent eating while at work, total time, overtime working hours), time spent working at home on workdays and days off, evaluation of work at workplace (7 items), outlook on increase or decrease in income 5 years from now, number of paid leave days available per year/number of paid leave days used/reasons for using, number of consecutive summer vacation days used, time spent sleeping (wake-up time/bedtime on workdays and days off)

(4) Time use – home, childrearing
Time spent on housework/childrearing on workdays and days off (time spent cooking/doing laundry/shopping, time spent washing car/doing home repairs, time with children, time spent nursing/caring for sick/injured family member), person in charge of household chores (cleaning home/preparing food/doing laundry), person who cares for children other than respondent and spouse/most dependable person, frequency of experience caring for friends’ children, whether respondent has experience using systems within the company for childcare (parental leave system/adjustable working hour system/reduced working hours system/telecommuting system/childcare service reimbursement systems), attitude to childcare experience, number of children, whether respondent wants children

(5) Time use – Free time at home
Time spent watching television, reading newspapers, reading magazines, doing the Internet/reading, watching movies, listening to music/talking with friends or acquaintances on the phone, via e-mail or by chatting on workdays and days off

(6) Time use – Frequency of engaging in various activities
Going out with family, going out/eating out with friends and acquaintances, learning/self-development activities, sports and other physical activities, relaxing by going shopping/to hair salon/barber/spa, enjoying movies/music/ theater/sports events (outside of the home), involvement in children’s school events/club activities, community/volunteer/religious activities

(7) Time use – Intention to increase or decrease time use in the future
Time spent sleeping, time spent working, time spent on housework/childrearing, community/volunteer activities

(8) Other
Frequency of having dinner with the whole family, distance between respondent’s house and parents’ house

(9) Degree of satisfaction with current life
Degree of satisfaction with current job, degree of satisfaction with division of housework with spouse, degree of satisfaction with relationship of spouse to children, degree of satisfaction with current life, state of mental and physical health condition in the past one month

(10) Financial status
Amount of income earned from job last year, amount of non-job income earned last year, amount of income put into family budget by family members other than respondent and spouse
Date of Release 2010/07/15
Topics in CESSDA Click here for details

Working conditions
Family life and marriage
Time use
Topics in SSJDA International Comparison/Diplomacy
Version 1 : 2010-07-15
Notes for Users Variable and value labels are written in Japanese.