University of Tokyo

Survey Number 1075
Survey Title The International Comparative Survey on Marriage and the Family, 2004
Depositor Nobutaka Fukuda
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Educational Purpose Only available for research.
Period of Data Use Permission One year
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Summary This survey was conducted as part of the international comparative survey "Generation Gender Survey (GGS)" in the "Generation and Gender Project (GGP)" of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE).

The rapidly declining birth rate and aging population in Japan are making a serious impact on its entire social security system, but this problem is largely common to developed countries. Since the background of declining birth rate and the impact of aging are closely related to family values in a broad sense, in order to learn the extent and depth of the problem of declining birthrate and aging and to apply adequate policy measures, it is necessary to analyze the changes in family values from a broad perspective that includes an international comparison.

During this period, the population department of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE), which covers a majority of the developed countries, launched the "Generation and Gender Project (GGP)," which connects the problem of declining birthrate and aging in European countries to changes with family values from the perspective of generation and gender. Japan, the leading developed country outside the commission, was urged to participate in the project.

In an active response to this call, Japan joined the GGP project since its planning/design stage. Through this research project, it aims not only to receive the merits of international comparative research but also make a unique research contribution.

The objective of the GGP is to collect macro data on the population, economy, society, and social security based on an analysis frame common to all participating countries and to conduct the "Generation Gender Survey (GGS)" using a common questionnaire. This survey aims to collect and analyze microdata of the GGS and was carried out with samples from the entire country as the "International Comparative Survey on Marriage and the Family."

This is a comprehensive survey on family aimed at understanding the reality of marriage and family in Japanese society, where birth rate decline and aging continue to grow. It is probably the first international comparative survey of this field in Japan.

The main survey contents are as follows:
(1) Relationship with partner
(2) Fertility
(3) Family network
(4) Gender
(5) Elderly care
(6) Thoughts on marriage and children
(7) Domestic life and daily routine
(8) Family finances and social security
Data Type quantitative research
quantitative research: micro data
Universe Men and women aged 18 and 69 years residing in municipalities across Japan (as of March 31, 2003)
Unit of Observation Individual
Sample Size Valid responses: 4,265 men (response rate: 57.9%), 4,809 women (response rate: 63.0%)
Date of Collection 2004-03 ~ 2004-04
March to April 2004
Time Period 2004 ~ 2004
Spatial Unit Japan
Sampling Procedure Probability: Systematic random
Probability: Stratified
Probability: Stratified: Proportional
Probability: Multistage
Two-stage stratified random sampling method

To sample the respondents, first, the municipalities of the entire country were divided into 47 layers by region (Tohoku, Kanto, Hokuriku, and so on) and size. This was defined as the first layers of sampling. Then, the 15,000 samples were distributed proportionally according to the population size of the first layers, and the number of survey locations in each of the first layers was defined so that each location had between 25 and 30 samples.

The survey locations were randomly sampled from the first layers using the areas set in the census for the year 2000. These survey locations were defined as the second layer, and the respondents were extracted from the Basic Resident Register of the respective survey location by systematic sampling.
Mode of Data Collection Self-administered questionnaire
Visit and leave method
The surveyors visited the house of each respondent and distributed the questionnaire. They returned to collect the filled questionnaires a few days later.
Investigator FUKUDA Nobutaka, survey carried out by Shin Joho Center
DOI 10.34500/SSJDA.1075
Sponsors (Funds) Health and Labour Sciences Research Grant (Policy Science Promotion Research Project) (Issue number H14 – Policies – 036)
Related Publications (by the Investigator) Please refer to the abstract in Japanese.
Related Publications (based on Secondary Analysis) List of related publications (based on Secondary Analysis)
Documentation [Questionnaire]
Major Survey Items [Face items]
・Family living together (number of members, relationship, gender, age, marital status, and health conditions)
・Residence (type, number of rooms, and residence years)
・Date of birth of the respondent and spouse, last school attended, graduated or withdrawn, places of residence until the age of 15 years, number of siblings, gross annual income of the previous year, and parents' work when the respondent was 15 (employment status, form of employment, job category)

(1) Relationship with partner
・Marital status/situation (never been married/divorced/ separated/ widowed/first marriage/remarriage)
・Month and year of the first marriage
・Experience of living together before marriage (married couples)
・Experience considering divorce (in the last one year), frequency of disagreement with spouse (concerning domestic chores, finance, and others)

(2) Fertility
・Number of children, details of the children (gender, date of birth, health conditions, and marital status)
・Details of the children (18 or under) (last school attended, whether they are studying, current job, distance to their residence, frequency of meetings in the last one year, and satisfaction with the relationship)

(3) Family network
・Experience with consultation in the last one year (details of work/workplace, love/marriage/marital relationship), main consultant
・Experience with monetary exchanges in the last one year (between respondent/spouse and family/relatives), total amount, and with whom

(4) Gender
・Thoughts on marriage, family, and gender

(5) Elderly care
・Details of the respondent's and spouse's parents (health conditions, necessity for long-term care/nursing, whether they live together, and distance from their residence, frequency of seeing them, level of satisfaction regarding the relationship, birth month and year, highest level of educational attainment)
・Expectations of living with parents in three years

(6) Thoughts on marriage and children
・Plans to have children, how many, and when
・Potential changes in daily life if there was going to be a child (or a second child) (standard of living, freedom to do things, and so on)
・Intention of getting married
・Experience with living together (unmarried couples)
・Potential changes in daily life if the couple were to get married (standard of living, freedom to do things, and so on)
・Importance of certain things concerning a decision relating to marriage (own income, house after marriage, and so on)

(7) Domestic life and daily routine
・Friends and acquaintances (feels lonely, has many trustworthy friends and acquaintances, and so on)
・Division and frequency of domestic chores, frequency of use of external services (having dinner out, ordering house cleaning service, and so on)
・The person who looks after or nurses the children and frequency

(8) Family finances and social security
・Employment status of the respondent and spouse, form of employment, job category, working hours per week, and time when work starts/ends
・Satisfaction with current work and ideal working hours per week
・Child-rearing cost in the last one year (monthly average), whether the child attended nursery school/kindergarten (when the eldest child was aged between 0 and 6 years)
Date of Release
Topics in CESSDA Click here for details

Family life and marriage
Gender and gender roles
Topics in SSJDA Society/Culture
Version 1 : 2016-12-13
Notes for Users Individuals or groups involved in acts that violate research ethics such as thesis plagiarism or data falsification/alteration are not authorized to use this data for any purpose.