University of Tokyo

Survey Number 1098
Survey Title Denounce and Self-promotion Survey Experiment - US and Korea Data, 2015
Depositor Collaborative Research on Political Information Transmission (Atsushi Tago, Shoko Kohama, & Kazunori Inamasu)
(Former Name:Collaborative Research on Political Information Transmission (Atsushi Tago, Shoko Kohama, and Kazunori Inamasu))
Restriction of Use For detailed information, please refer to 'For Data Users' on the SSJDA website.

- Apply to SSJDA. SSJDA's approval is required.
Educational Purpose Available for both research and instructional purposes.
Period of Data Use Permission One year
Access to Datasets Download
SSJDA Data Analysis Not available
Summary This survey experiment, which was conducted in the USA and South Korea, is the same as "CROP-IT – Denounce and Self-promotion Survey Experiment - Japan Data" (survey number 1097), which dealt with a dispute between two anonymous countries A and B. In this version, however, two actual countries – Japan and China – were assigned.

The situation given in the survey is that during a dispute between countries A and B over land and territorial waters, a "near-miss incident" took place, with two fighter planes of both countries flying dangerously close to each other. The survey can verify how the reaction of other countries would change if the government of each country chose to "Remain in silence," "Criticize the other country," or "Justify its own actions."

It also includes a separate survey experiment in which a speech by Prime Minister Shinzo Abe before the US Congress and a discourse by former Prime Minister Tomiichi Murayama are presented in different orders. It is aimed at understanding how the apologies tendered by the Prime Ministers for Japan's actions during the Second World War would be received by the American and Korean people.

[Questionnaire design]
"China and Japan are engaged in a dispute over land and territorial waters. The conflict extends to the sky (airspace), with fighter planes of both countries repeatedly flying over the same section. As a result, a 'near-miss incident' occurred a few days ago, with two fighter planes coming very close to each other. Following this incident, the government of each country made a statement as below." After an English and Korean translation of this scenario, the comments of each country were presented.

The comments are "No comment," "Our country's behavior is consistent with our regular monitoring activities and is therefore justifiable," and "The behavior of the Japanese/Chinese fighter plane was extremely dangerous and unprecedented, and it could have resulted in a serious accident." Since each country can announce their comments in three different patterns, there are nine conditions (3*3) altogether.

After reading these scenarios and comments, the respondent is asked about their support for Japan and China and how the information was transmitted.

Moreover, in the survey experiment concerning the apology by tendered the Prime Ministers, the speech by Prime Minister Shinzo Abe before the US Congress and the discourse by the former Prime Minister Tomiichi Murayama below were configured so that one of them was displayed first in half of the questionnaires. After reading both texts, the respondents had to choose one of the three following options: "1. The apology is good enough," "2. The apology is not good enough," and "3. Japan does not need to apologize."

[Prime Minister Shinzo Abe's speech at the US Congress]
"Post war, we started out on our path bearing in mind feelings of deep remorse over the war. Our actions brought suffering to the peoples in Asian countries. We must not avert our eyes from that. I will uphold the views expressed by the previous Prime Ministers in this regard."

[Former Prime Minister Tomiichi Murayama's discourse]
"During a certain period in the not too distant past, Japan, following a mistaken national policy, advanced along the road to war, only to ensnare the Japanese people in a fateful crisis, and, through its colonial rule and aggression, caused tremendous damage and suffering to the people of many countries, particularly to those of Asian nations. In the hope that no such mistake be made in the future, I regard, in a spirit of humility, these irrefutable facts of history, and express here once again my feelings of deep remorse and state my heartfelt apology. Allow me also to express my feelings of profound mourning for all victims, both at home and abroad, of that history."

The questionnaire also includes items that measure demographic factors such as age, gender, educational background, and household income, as well as political ideology.
Data Type quantitative research: micro data
Universe American and Korean citizens
* The data of this survey also include the time of response in each part, which makes it possible to exclude the surveyees that responded too quickly.
Unit of Observation Individual
Sample Size Number of respondents in USA data: 1,985
Number of respondents in Korean data: 1,983
Date of Collection 2015-06 ~ 2015-06
Time Period 2015 ~ 2015
Spatial Unit Korea, Republic of
United States of America
Sampling Procedure
Mode of Data Collection Self-administered questionnaire: Web-based (CAWI)
Web survey
Investigator Collaborative Research on Political Information Transmission (by Atsushi Tago, Shoko Kohama, and Kazunori Inamasu)
Field survey by Nikkei Research, Inc.

DOI 10.34500/SSJDA.1098
Sponsors (Funds) This survey was conducted with the support of the JSPS Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research "Topic-Setting Program to Advance Cutting-Edge Humanities and Social Sciences Research" (Global Development Program.)
Related Publications (by the Investigator) Please refer to the abstract in Japanese.
Related Publications (based on Secondary Analysis) List of related publications (based on Secondary Analysis)
Documentation [ Questionnaire for US survey ][ Questionnaire for Korean survey ]
Major Survey Items (1) About international relations
・The countries the respondent sympathizes with
・Media used to learn about international relations (TV, radio, and others)

(2) Scenario experiment (fighter plane near-miss incident)
* See also "Survey outline."
・Level of support for China and Japan
・Impressions on information transmission (feels like they are hiding something, fears even more provocative behavior, and so on)
・The country the respondent sympathizes with more
・Whether the respondent thought about any specific country, and if so, which

(3) Survey experiment (Prime Ministers' speeches)
* See also "Survey outline."
・Acknowledgment of Prime Minister Abe's official visit to the US/speech before the Congress (April 2015)
・Impressions on Prime Minister Abe's speech (The apology is good enough/It is not good enough/There is no need to apologize/I don't know/I prefer not to answer)
・Impressions on former Prime Minister Tomiichi Murayama's discourse (1995) (The apology is good enough/It is not good enough/There is no need to apologize/I don't know/I prefer not to answer)

[Face items]
・Birth year, gender, area of residence
・highest level of educational attainment,annual household income
・Political ideology
Date of Release 2017/07/03
Topics in CESSDA Click here for details

Conflict, security and peace
International politics and organisations
Topics in SSJDA International Comparison/Diplomacy
Version 1 : 2017-07-03
Notes for Users