University of Tokyo

Survey Number 1158
Survey Title Study on the Intersection between Social Milieu and Politics, 2005
Depositor HIGUCHI Naoto
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Summary Since the late 1990s, both national and local politics have seen a proliferation of phenomena unimagined under the 1955 System. In national politics, the Koizumi administration came to power against a backdrop of populism and the 2005 House of Representatives General Election, known as the "theatrical election," when the privatization of the postal service was a point of dispute. In regional politics, direct democracy-type action such as resident movements are becoming more vibrant, and there has been a succession of political party-affiliated candidates being defeated by independents for the post of prefectural governor. Such recent political changes are difficult to explain in terms of their relationship with the political behavior of voters through existing frameworks such as social class or conservative and reformist ideology, meaning that new, alternative models are necessary.

In the context of the above situation, this survey was carried out within the Tokyo Metropolis area immediately after the September 2005 House of Representatives election for the purpose of proposing new frameworks, models, and methods of analysis to explain the dynamism of post-1955 System Japanese politics. This survey aims to elucidate the characteristic social milieu in Tokyo. Based on an understanding of the issues as outlined above, the survey employed the concept of the social milieu, which developed primarily in Germany, as a method of analysis to cultivate a new space of Japanese-style social milieu and politics. Milieu refers to a group of people with similar ways of thinking and behavior patterns and offers the significant benefit of being able to explain behavior in terms of not just objective conditions such as socially constructed attributes based on production and labor but also subjective conditions such as diverse social consciousness and world views, as well as consumption-based lifestyles. This survey was carried out based on the view that employing the concept of the social milieu can offer a useful method for the socio-political understanding of contemporary Japanese politics.
Data Type quantitative research
quantitative research: micro data
Universe Residents of Tokyo aged 20 to 79 (as of August 1, 2005)
Unit of Observation Individual
Sample Size Number distributed: 8,500
Number responded: 2,887
Response rate: 33.96%
Date of Collection 2005-09 ~ 2005-10
September – October 2005
Time Period 2005 ~ 2005
Spatial Unit tokyo
6 wards (ku) and 2 cities (shi) in Tokyo (Minato-ku, Bunkyo-ku, Edogawa-ku, Koto-ku, Sumida-ku, Suginami-ku, Koganei-shi, Tachikawa-shi)
Sampling Procedure Probability: Systematic random
Based on National Census data, six wards and two cities in the Tokyo Metropolis (Minato-ku, Bunkyo-ku, Edogawa-ku, Koto-ku, Sumida-ku, Suginami-ku, Koganei-shi, Tachikawa-shi) were set as the survey locations in order to sample the widest possible range of educational backgrounds and ages.

Polling districts were randomly selected from the electoral registers, and individuals aged 20–79 (as of August 1, 2005) were systematically sampled through selection at equal intervals.
Mode of Data Collection Self-administered questionnaire: Paper
Distributed and collected by postal mail
Investigator HIGUCHI Naoto
DOI 10.34500/SSJDA.1158
Sponsors (Funds) Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology science research fund (exploratory research)
Related Publications (by the Investigator) Please refer to the abstract in Japanese.
Related Publications (based on Secondary Analysis) List of related publications (based on Secondary Analysis)
Documentation [Questionnaire]
Major Survey Items (1)Political party supported, voting behavior during elections
・Political party supported
・Whether the respondent voted in the 2005 Tokyo Prefectural election, whether the respondent voted in the 2005 House of Representatives election/party of the candidate voted for, whether respondent voted in the 2005 proportional-representation election of the House of Representatives/party voted for.

(2)Experience of political participation
Providing signatures, attendance at a convention, contribution/fund-raising campaign, appeal/petition, experience of participating in a demonstration/protest

(3)Support or disapproval of policies
Approval/disapproval regarding: Dispatch of Self-Defense Forces to Iraq, Constitution amendment, privatization of postal service, Prime Minister's visit to Yasukuni Shrine, Increase of consumption tax for purposes of pension

(4)Likeability of political parties, politicians, famous people, and social activity
Likeability of Liberal Democratic Party, Democratic Party of Japan, Japanese Communist Party, Junichiro Koizumi, Shintaro Ishihara, Yasuo Tanaka, Makiko Tanaka, Takafumi Horie, Takeshi Kitano, civil movement, Self-Defense Forces, Government officials

(5)Opinions and thoughts regarding society
・Opinion: Regarding privacy, regarding division of labor based on gender, regarding married couples having different surnames, etc.
・Objectives that society should place importance on: Maintaining domestic order/discipline, reflecting the voice of citizens more strongly in decisions on important policies, strong policies for supporting economic conditions and growth, protecting freedom of speech and rights of citizens
・What is personally important: Having a high income, reaching a high position, living an individual lifestyle, etc.

(6)Groups and leisure activities
Participation in: Residents association or neighborhood association, labor union, industry association, political party or supporter's association, consumer group, PTA, social circles, religious group, nature conservation group, volunteer group

(7)Overseas experiences
Number of times travelled overseas, experience of living overseas

Frequency of leisure activities, Newspaper that one reads, Television programs watched and their type, Eating out behavior

[Face items]
・Gender, age, educational history, employment status, occupation type, size of company, household income, area of residence, area of residence at age 15 years
・Marital status, household structure, number of children, type of residence

・Father's educational history, father's area of residence at age 15 years, mother's area of residence at age 15 years

・Educational history, employment status, occupation type, size of company
Date of Release
Topics in CESSDA Click here for details

Government, political systems and organisations
Political ideology
Social behaviour and attitudes
Topics in SSJDA Politics/Administration/Election
Version 1 : 2018-01-09
Notes for Users