University of Tokyo

Survey Number 1159
Survey Title Public Opinion Poll on Internationalization and Citizens' Political Participation, 2013
Depositor Research Project for Internationalization and Political Participation (PI: Shunsuke Tanabe)
Restriction of Use For detailed information, please refer to 'For Data Users' at SSJDA website.

- Apply to SSJDA. SSJDA's approval required.
Educational Purpose Available for both research and instructional purposes.
Period of Data Use Permission One year
Access to Datasets Download
Nesstar Nesstar (online data analysis & metadata browsing system) is available for this data.
Summary The image of “the Japanese” as Japanese nationality holders comprising an ethnic group both native to Japan and residing in Japan is being shaken. Along with the progress of globalization, the number of settled foreigners living in Japan, and, vice-versa, the number of Japanese living abroad has been continuously increasing, and inconsistencies between residence and nationality are expanding. Furthermore, there are signs of change in the principle of matching nationality and voting rights, such as a proposal to give local voting rights to foreign residents, issued within the Democratic Party, which became the ruling party after the general election of the House of Representatives in 2009. This situation raises questions about the so-called “myth of an ethnically homogeneous nation” that seemed natural in Japan after the war, indicating that Japanese nationalism has begun to enter a new phase.

There are a variety of problems concerning people’s actual state of nationalism, the influence this has on their consciousness and political behavior toward foreigners, the idea of granting voting rights to foreigners, the relationship between exclusion of foreigners and support for political parties/politicians, and nationalism in contemporary Japan. This survey was conducted to empirically clarify the current state of these problems through an analysis of social survey data targeting the general public.

In order to make maximum use of the problem concerns of this survey, we provided many question items as follows. First, in addition to basic information such as gender, age, marital status, academic background, occupation, etc., as items related to individual respondents’ attributes, items relating to the nationality of parents of the respondent were prepared. In addition, there were many items regarding opportunities and frequency of contact with foreigners. For items concerning consciousness towards foreigners, we also asked about approval or disapproval of the increasing number of foreigners by country of origin, approval or disapproval of the granting of rights to foreigners, and what could be the impact of an increasing number of foreigners. Regarding political behavior and consciousness, there were items on voting in the general elections of the House of Representatives in 2009 and 2012 and the election of the House of Councilors in 2013, political parties usually supported, and positive feelings about political parties and politicians. In addition, there were many question items on positions such as values and economic inequality, and it was possible to verify from this survey a great deal of information to clarify people’s state of nationalism.

Further, the survey has the same design as the 0838 “Public Opinion Poll on Internationalization and Citizens’ Political Participation, 2009,” and the report contains a comparative analysis.
Data Type quantitative research
quantitative research: micro data
Universe Men and women aged 20 to 80 years old who are Japanese nationals residing in Japan
Unit of Observation Individual
Sample Size Number of responses: 4,134
Response rate: 42.2%
Date of Collection November to December, 2013
Time Period
Spatial Unit 51 municipalities across Japan from Hokkaido to Okinawa
Sampling Procedure Stratified multistage sampling using voter registration lists.

First Stage: Based on the 2010 Population Census of Japan, Japanese municipalities were divided into three groups according to the proportion of foreign residents. Seventeen municipalities were randomly sampled from each group, in accordance with a sampling probability in line with the population ratio.
Second Stage: 200 cases sampled from the sampled municipalities.
Mode of Data Collection Mail survey (self-administered)
Investigator Research Project for Internationalization and Political Participation (PI: Shunsuke Tanabe)
Sponsors (Funds) Japan Society for the Promotion of Science Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research (KAKENHI)
Related Publications (by the Investigator) Please refer to the abstract in Japanese.
Related Publications (based on Secondary Analysis) List of related publications (based on Secondary Analysis)
Documentation Questionnaire
Major Survey Items (1) Respondent attributes
Gender, age, number of years in the residence, marital status, highest level of educational attainment, employment status, occupation/occupation type, size of employer by number of employees, job title, number of cohabitants, presence of children, age of eldest child/age of youngest child, household income, parents’ nationality, level of interaction with organizations and groups (community organizations/volunteers/NPO/ consumer groups), whether or not respondent has consulted someone about worries in the past year (family member, relative, other friend or acquaintance)

(2) Experience traveling overseas/opportunities for contact with foreigner
Experience traveling overseas, frequency of contact with foreigners in area of residence, presence of foreigners living within respondent’s sphere of daily life

(3) Elections
Political party voted for for proportional-representation in the 2013 (the 23rd) election of the House of Councillors, in the 2012 (the 46th) general election of the House of Representatives, and in the 2009 (the 45th) general election of the House of Representatives

(4) Opinions concerning internationalization
Approval or disapproval of the increase in the number of foreigners living within respondent’s sphere of daily life (by country of origin), impact of the increase of foreigners living in Japan, opinion about the rights the Japanese government should grant for long-term resident foreigners (or intending to be long-term resident) in Japan, influence of strong patriotism in Japan, level of pride in Japanese economic success and traditional culture, things important in considering someone Japanese, positive feelings about each country, the international status of each country,views on diplomatic issues and foreigners and ethnic minorities in Japan, frequency of interaction with foreigners (by country)

(5) Politics in general
Political party supported, positive feelings about political parties and politicians, approval and disapproval of opinions on politics, opinion and position on economic inequality, opinion and value, opinion about society, change in economic situation, household income (comparison with the general public), life satisfaction level, perception of status

*For details of survey items, please refer to the questionnaire.
Date of Release
Topics in CESSDA Click here for details

Topics in SSJDA Politics/Administration/Election
Version 2017/11/06 :
Notes for Users