University of Tokyo

Survey Number 1207
Survey Title Survey on Keihin Manufacturing Industrial District (Employee Survey), 1951
Depositor Institute of Social Science, The University of Tokyo
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Educational Purpose Available for both research and instructional purposes.
Period of Data Use Permission One year
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Summary This survey targeted factory workers in Yokohama City and Kawasaki City and investigated aspects such as occupation of workers' parents, skill formation, employment history, transfer routes, and how poverty and times of unemployment were handled.

In Japan, independent farming or tenant farming under semi-feudalistic land policy was entrenched, with such low living standards used as a scapegoat for the policy-driven accumulation of industrial capital. As a result, the development of class distinctions in agriculture was impeded, meaning that a waged worker class reproduced through wage income did not develop. The waged workforce of industrial production was continuously supplied from the excess labor in agriculture, but it was rare for such workers to cut all social and economic ties with the rural communities, meaning that they maintained diverse and complex relationships with such communities.

Against the above backdrop, this survey had two objectives. The first was to investigate the labor market mechanisms in the Keihin manufacturing industrial district and delineate the foundations of the industrial labor force in the area. Based on this, the second objective was to elucidate the location of social problems that the development of industry had engendered or might bring about in the future.

The publicly available data is based on data that has been restored. The person responsible for the restoration project is Kenji Hashimoto (Professor, Waseda University), and the project involved the digitalization and coding (between 2011 and 2012) of survey forms held in the Institute of Social Science Library, the University of Tokyo.
Data Type quantitative research
quantitative research: micro data
Universe Industorial workers in Yokohama and Kawasaki cities
Unit of Observation Individual
Sample Size Responses 14,594,response rate 65.3%(Samples available 14,327)
Date of Collection 1951-09 ~ 1951-09
Time Period 1951 ~ 1951
Spatial Unit kanagawa
Yokohama-City, Kawasaki-City
Sampling Procedure Other
So as to capture a representation of industrial workers in Yokohama and Kawasaki cities by scale and occupation, 22,318 individuals in 86 factories, accounting for slightly over 10 percent of heavy industry workers in both cities—Yokohama City (Tsurumi Ward, Kanagawa Ward, and Nishi Ward) and Kawasaki City—were selected.
Mode of Data Collection Self-administered questionnaire: Paper
Each company was contacted, through Kanagawa Prefecture, and requested to distribute the questionnaire to employees, who were asked to complete it. Collection was carried out through the companies.
Responses were transcribed into a reference table, and a statistical table was created.
Investigator A request was received from Kanagawa Prefectural Planning Office, and the survey was carried out by the Labor Problem Survey Research Group (Kazuo Okouchi, Shojiro Ujihara, Norikuni Naito, Tatsuro Matsumoto, et al.)
DOI 10.34500/SSJDA.1207
Sponsors (Funds) Kanagawa Prefectural Planning Office, Expert Committee Survey Funds
Related Publications (by the Investigator) Please refer to the abstract in Japanese.
Related Publications (based on Secondary Analysis) List of related publications (based on Secondary Analysis)
Documentation [Questionnaire]
Major Survey Items (1) Face items
・Relationship with parents
・Education (Last school, Graduate/Drop-out, Year of graduation, Certification, etc.)
・Current address

(2) Occupation
・Occupation, position in hierarchy
・Length of service (years/months), years/months of continuous service
・Place of training (school, training school, training workshop, apprenticeship, on the job, other) and period of training
・Way of getting a job (Introduction from employment placement office, personal connections, school introduction, recruiter, recruitment outside of university gates,newspaper advertisement, other)
・Staff or laborer
・Employment status (regular/temporary)
・Commuting route, cost/burden (self/company), commute time
・Address before starting work at the factory, address at point of graduation from elementary school
・Family occupation at time of graduating elementary school (agriculture, factory worker, company employee, merchant/shopkeeper, civil servant, other)

(3) War-related experiences
・Number of changes in residence in post-war times
・Experience of damages due to war, experience of repatriation

(4) Unemployment experience
・Whether the respondent has experience of being unemployed
・Month and year of start of period of unemployment, month and year of end of period of unemployment
・Lifestyle during unemployment (return to home town, assist family, live on severance pay, live on unemployment insurance, day labor, temporary/casual work, piecework done at home, retail, other)

(5) Family/Household
・Existence of assistance from family, whether or not the family's residence is respondent's place of birth
・Number of cohabitants, number of non-relative cohabitants, existence of cohabiting spouse
・For each member of the household, including the respondent – Relationship, gender, age, occupation, employer, monthly income, amount contributed to household finances
・Household income, amount contributed to household finances
・Number of cohabitant household members, people living separately who the respondent would like to live with, existence of spouse living separately
・Fiancé who respondent would like to live with, gender/age of people living separately who respondent would like to live with

(6) Residence
・Residence type (company residence, family dormitory, single dormitory or dormitory, public apartment, public housing, apartment, rental house, rented room, own residence)
・Dwelling history
・Rent, deposit, key money
・Number of rooms/number of tatami mats in house, number of rooms/number of tatami mats in residence
・Existence of any dissatisfaction, details of dissatisfaction
・Desired residence
・Existence of any disputes, details of dispute (eviction, rent increase, land rent increase, disturbance, additional key money, other)

(7) Employment history/History of moving residence
・Employer history and number of rows
・Starting year, Ending year, Employer, Industry, Location of workplace, Employee scale, Management type, occupation for each job
・Number of times moving residence
・First year of moving to new residence, site code
Date of Release
Topics in CESSDA Click here for details

Working conditions
Family life and marriage
Social and occupational mobility
Topics in SSJDA Employment/Labor
Version 1 : 2018-08-24
Notes for Users