University of Tokyo

Abstract
Survey Number 0007
Survey Title Survey on the Retirement Allowance System, 1995
Depositor Research Institute for Advancement of Living Standards
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Summary With the arrival of an era of aging society, the significance of retirement allowances has intensified for workers in designing a living for the entire life. At the same time, as the industrial structure and the labor market changed, the structure of the allowance system has begun to call for reconsideration in order to facilitate smooth job switching and outward upper mobility. Accordingly, firms have increasingly emphasized meritocracy in personnel management, and strengthened a mood for systemic reconsideration with, for example, the introduction of a point method into the existing retirement allowance system. It is against this backdrop that we conducted research aiming at deriving basic data to reconsider the system. The research consists of two parts: (1) a "survey of firms" directed to private firms and (2) a "survey of individuals" directed to the workers in private firms. Along with the surveys, we also conducted interviews with the relevant representatives of major firms in the auto, electric machine, and steel industries. The research indicates that the idea of meritocracy and the centrality of achievement have, indeed, slowly but steadily pressured the area of retirement allowances. The workers, too, frequently agreed on the overall direction toward individualization of the allowances. As an issue for the future, the need for communication and joint discussion between labor and management has been pointed out upon re-designing the system, which still constitutes an important working condition. Such joint efforts are required to construct a just and rational system by incorporating not only the employer's logic but also the view of worker's welfare.
Universe (1) A survey of firms: private firms
(2) A survey of individuals: workers employed by private firms
Unit of Observation Individual,Organization
Sample Size (1) 269 effective responses from a sample of 1,000 firms (rate of effective return: 26.9%)
(2) 1,062 effective responses from a sample of 2,000 (male) workers (rate of effective return: 53.1%)
Time Period November, 1995
Spatial Unit
Sampling Procedure
Mode of Data Collection A record system in which respondents received questionnaires via JTUC-affiliated labor unions and mailed them back JTUC RIALS.
Investigator The Committee for Research and Study on Trends in the Retirement Allowance System (Keisuke Nakamura, Hitoshi Nagano, Mitsuhiro Matsui, Hiroshi Terabe, Toshiyuki Mihara, Fumizo Katsuo, etc.), JTUC RIALS
Sponsors (Funds) The Ministry of International Trade and Industry
Related Publications (by the Investigator) JTUC-RIALS (March 1996) Heisei 7 nen-do koreisha no koyo kankyo no seibi chosa kenkyu (taishoku-kin seido no doko ni kansuru chosa kenkyu) [1995 Research and Study on the Preparation of an Employment Environment for the Elderly (Research and Study on the Trends in the Returement Allowance System)].
Related Publications (based on Secondary Analysis) List of related publications (based on Secondary Analysis)
Documentation [Kigyo Chosa-hyo][Kojin Chosa-hyo]
Major Survey Items (1) A survey of firms
Demographic items: company size, industry, average age, and average number of years worked.
Questionnaire items: the existing retirement allowance system (its form and method of calculation; work-length-specific rates of payment by reason of retirement; past changes in and future prospects for those rates; changes in the number of years worked where rates meet; timing of the change from the point method to the retirement system; number of years worked to which highest standard points and work-length points are given; weight of standard points; availability of different rates for different retirement reasons; allowance levels by number of years worked; past changes in and future prospects for the curve; modifications made in the system for the past five years and reasons for the modifications; rates of reserve fund; conception and method of calculating reserve funds in corporate accounting; future rates of reserve fund in corporate accounting); the corporate pension system (availability of system; rate of retirement allowances transferred to corporate pensions; percentage of retirees for age who were given pensions; measures to encourage the pension choice); the early retirees preferential treatment system (availability of system; availability of policy; details of policy; preferential measures in payment of retirement allowances; modifications; subjects); and issues confronting and the future of the retirement allowance system (a picture of the system in the future; making pension portable; the future of pension levels; expected modifications in the system; requests for improving tax policy for retirement allowances; consideration of a retirement income deduction system upon designing a retirement allowance system).
(2) A survey of individuals
Demographic items: sex, age, last school attended, seniority at present firm; type of occupation; position held; job-switching frequency; number of full-time employees at firm and firm's industry.
Questionnaire items: the retirement allowance system and its familiarity (form of system and method of calculation; general familiarity of the system; a point-method system; a tax system favoring retirement allowances); important determinants of retirement allowances and disparities; intention for job-switching and the system (an outlook for the future occupational life; retirement allowances upon consideration of job-switching; view of a tax system favoring retirement allowances); the early retirees preferential treatment system (availability of the system; availability of policy; rates added to the monthly basic wages if enrolled); requests and expectations with regard to the retirement allowance system; and issues of the retirement allowance system and requests (desirable method of receiving allowances; reasons for receiving allowances in sum; dissatisfaction with the system; problems of corporate pensions; requests for portable corporate pensions).
Date of Release 1998/04/01
Version Registered on April 1, 1998.
Topics Employment/Labor
Notes for Users Data Sets are written in Japanese.