University of Tokyo

Abstract
Survey Number 0060
Survey Title Survey on Time Reduction and Employee Welfare (Companies and Labor Unions), 1992
Depositor Research Institute for Advancement of Living Standards
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Period of Data Use Permission One year
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Summary The fear of long-term labor shortage has led companies to emphasize shorter working hours and better workers' welfare as measures to secure and stabilize human resources. However, the limit of such efforts at the individual company level has also been pointed out for smaller companies. The alleged reasons are that these companies are inclined toward horizontal uniformity and that they are restrained by particular business relations. This survey was directed to both smaller companies (in the manufacturing industry) and labor unions for the purpose of clarifying issues and problems which would arise in the process of reducing working hours and improving workers' welfare at this type of companies. In particular, the current state of business relations and their effect on hours were examined.
Universe [Company Questionnaire]
Small and midsize manufacturing companies (consisting of (1) 5,000 general companies and (2) 1,000 companies to which Rengo-affiliated unions belong).
[Labor Union Questionnaire]
Those unions which belong to (2) above.
Unit of Observation Organization
Sample Size [Company Questionnaire]
6,000 sampled ((1)+(2)); 1,438 effective responses ((1) 1,118 + (2) 320).
[Labor Union Questionnaire]
1,000 unions sampled; 408 effective responses.
Time Period October, 1992
Spatial Unit
Sampling Procedure [Company Questionnaire]
(1) Random sampling from company list. (2) Selection was entrusted to Rengo organizations.
[Labor Union Questionnaire]
See (2) above.
Mode of Data Collection The Rengo Small Firms Labor Bureau and the JTUC-LIALS distributed and collected questionnaires by mail. Union questionnaires were sent to the 1,000 companies along with company questionnaires.
Investigator The Rengo Small Firms Labor Bureau and the JTUC-RIALS
Sponsors (Funds)
Related Publications (by the Investigator) The Rengo Small Firms Labor Bureau and the JTUC-RIALS (February, 1993) Chusho-kigyo no rodo-jikan tanshuku, rodosha-fukushi ni kansuru chosa: Torihiki kankei no genjo to rodo-jikan he no eikyo (Survey of Shorter Hours and Workers' Welfare at Small and Midsize Companies: The Current State of Business Relations and Their Effect on Working Hours)
Related Publications (based on Secondary Analysis) List of related publications (based on Secondary Analysis)
Documentation [Kigyo Chosa-hyo][Kumiai Chosa-hyo]
Major Survey Items [Company Questionnaire]
1. Company profile: industry; number of regular employees; capital; number of customers with larger work force or capital; share of dealings with top customer in total sales; capital connection with top customer; state of union organization.
2. Outline of working hours: number of hours per week; weekly holiday system; average number of extra hours worked per month; whether 3-6 agreement reached or not; whether shorter working hours planned or not, and (if yes) details of plan; obstacles to promoting shorter hours; dimensions of business relations to be improved for promoting shorter hours.
3. Business relations and reduced working hours: state of business relations and their effect on working hours (whether R meets orders placed before holiday right after the day, and its effect on working hours; whether R meets orders placed after hours in the next morning, and its effect on working hours; whether R accepts changes in the order and its effect on working hours; unification of customers' holidays and shorter hours); business relations and management (reasons why top customer places orders; time limit of delivery and unit price; frequency of delivery and unit price; methods of determining terms of trade; recognition of "Subcontract Promotion Standards"; whether basic business contracts signed or not; relations with customers and operational burdens).
4. Company welfare measures: customers' welfare facilities R can use; measures emphasized so far and to be emphasized in the future.
5. (Free space for opinion/requests directed to customers, the government, and the business community.)

[Labor Union Questionnaire]
1. Company profile: industry; number of regular employees; number of customers with larger work force or capital.
2. Outline of working hours: obstacles to promoting shorter hours; dimensions of business relations to be improved for promoting shorter hours.
3. Business relations and reduced working hours: state of business relations and their effect on working hours (whether R's company meets orders placed before holiday righter after the day, and its effect on working hours; whether R's company meets orders placed after hours in the next morning, and its effect on working hours; whether R's company accepts changes in the order and its effect on working hours; whether customers demand/push for lower prices and its effect on working conditions; union activities (affiliation with group rokyo and activities; opinion exchange with customers' unions); recognition of "Subcontract Promotion Standards."
4.Company welfare measures: customers' welfare facilities R can use; welfare measures R wants the company to improve.
5 .(Free space for opinion/requests directed to customers, their unions, the government, and the business community.) (Free space for opinion/requests on working conditions in general.)
Date of Release 1999/12/08
Version Registered on December 8, 1999.
Topics Employment/Labor
Notes for Users Data Sets are written in Japanese.