University of Tokyo

Abstract
Survey Number 0093
Survey Title Public Opinion Poll on Lower House Elections (Survey Before and After the 1996 General Election), 1996
Depositor Japanese Election and Democracy Study
Restriction of Use For detailed information, please refer to 'For Data Users' at SSJDA website.

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Educational Purpose Available for both research and instructional purposes.
Period of Data Use Permission Usage period is unlimited for research purposes. Usage period is one year for educational purposes.
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Summary This is a public opinion poll on the 1996 General Election for the House of Representatives, which was conducted before and after the election. As a US-Japan joint project, the poll deals with the first general election after the House went through institutional changes, and its items are composed in a way conductive to verify two models concerning institutional impacts (i.e. the political culture model and the psychological model expecting manifestation of institutional realities). Through the examination of impacts of political culture and social psychological effects of institutional changes in the Japanese political process, the survey offers opportunities to study Japanese adaptation and maladaptation to the political system and party reorganization processes as understood by voters. In addition, data provided by the poll include those items which correspond to an international project of the CSES (Comparative Study of Electoral Systems), thereby offering comparative data involving 52 nations in the world.
JEDS96 is a shortened name of Japanese Elections and Democracy Study 96. Data sets written in English (jeds96e1.sav) is available. The number following jeds96.. means the version, and the contents are in agreement if the number of the Japanese version and the English version is the same.
Universe Male and female individuals, 20 years of age and above (voters)
Unit of Observation Individual
Sample Size Sample size: 2,100 people
Pre-election responses returned: 1,452 people (rate: 69.1%)
Post-election responses returned: 1,327 people (rate: 63.2%)
Both pre- and post-election responses returned: 1,244 people (rate: 59.2%)
Note:
A supplementary postcard survey (asking only four questions) was also conducted, covering 1,388 people who responded to either pre-election survey or post-election survey. 663 of them responded to the additional survey (rate: 47.8%).
Time Period Pre-election questionnaire: October 9-19, 1996
Post-election questionnaire: October 21-November 6, 1996
(Postcard survey: Cards were mailed out on November 21, 1996, with a December 1 deadline.)
Spatial Unit All over Japan
Sampling Procedure Stratified two-stage random sampling. (Details are given below.)
1. Population: Nation's men and women, 20 years old and above.
2. Number of individuals sampled: 2,100
3. Number of localities sampled: a total of 154 localities (121 cities and wards, and 33 towns and villages).
4. Sampling methods: stratified two-stage random sampling
Stratification
(1) The nation's cities, towns, and villages were divided into 11 regional blocks on the basis of proportional representation districts.
(2) The localities in each regional block were further divided into 5 groups, depending on their population size. This generated a total of 52 first-stage strata The 5 criteria for population size were derived from the "Numerical Tables of Nationwide Populations, Households, and Population Trends" (edited by the Local Administration Bureau of the Ministry of Home Affairs), which were in turn derived from the Residents' Basic Registrar as of March 31, 1996.
(3) A total of 2,100 slots were distributed to the 52 strata in proportion to their estimated numbers of people 20 years of age or above (as of March 31, 1995) so that each survey spot would have 10 to 16 slots. This generated a total of 154 survey spots.

Sampling
(1) The Survey Districts set upon the National Census of 1990 were used to derive the survey spots as the unit of first-stage sampling.
(2) In the sampling of survey spots (districts), a regular interval method was used for those strata which received two or more survey spots. The interval for each stratum was determined by dividing its total number of survey districts by the number of allocated survey spots.
(3) The order of cities, wards, towns, and villages for each stratum was derived from the localities' codes used in the above National Census.
(4) Individuals on each survey spot were sampled at a regular interval from the Voters' List (or the Residents' Basic Registrar in some cases) within the spot's sphere (towns, chome, banchi, districts, etc. were designated).
Mode of Data Collection Interviewing (except the supplementary survey in which postcards were mailed out)
Investigator JEDS Committee (Bradley Richardson, Susan Pharr, Dennis Patterson, Mitsuru Uchida, Fumi Hayashi, Etsushi Tanifuji, Aiji Tanaka, Ken'ichi Ikeda, Yoshitaka Nishizawa, and Kazuhisa Kawakami). Field work was performed by Chuo chosa-sha.
Note: The Japanese members have worked together since 1993 as members of the Election and Democracy Study Group (led by Mitsuru Uchida). Also, the JEDS Committee has obtained panel data of the JEDS 96 from the Upper House Election of 1998, and is planning to conduct surveys on the future Lower House elections.
Sponsors (Funds) The National Science Foundation (under Bradley Richardson); Ministry of Education Scientific Study Funds (General Study C: under Aiji Tanaka); and Yoshida Hideo Memorial Foundation.
Related Publications (by the Investigator) No publication in the form of report.
Related Publications (based on Secondary Analysis) List of related publications (based on Secondary Analysis)
Documentation [Mae Chosa-hyo][Ato Chosa-hyo]
Major Survey Items 1. Pre-election survey
(1) Questionnaire items
Degree of recognition of candidates (their names, familiarity, thermometer evaluation, and party names); evaluation of each candidate (in terms of 15 properties); degree of recognition of parties (their names, familiarity, and thermometer evaluation); thermometer evaluation of non-partisan candidates; evaluation of each party (in terms of 15 properties); party R normally supports and intensity of support; R's past party support; party R would never support; voting plan (voting or not voting; candidate R is planning to vote for, timing of decision, prospects for winning; and party R is planning to vote for, timing of decision, and prospects for winning); desirable government form (single-party of coalition government; and parties); candidates and parties R has frequently voted for; R's own and assessed ideological positions of the five major parties (conservative or progressive; reform or stability; and for or against administrative reform, and its importance); overall evaluation of Hashimoto Cabinet; problems to be tackled by new government and evaluation of efforts at solving them (promising candidates and parties, and evaluation of Hashimoto Cabinet's efforts so far); the most important among those problems and efforts at solving it (promising candidates and parties, and evaluation of Hashimoto Cabinet's effort so far); the most important local problem and efforts at solving it (promising candidates and parties); degree of satisfaction with democracy in Japan; attitudes/feelings toward Japanese party politics and party support, and parties R supports and favors; degree of recognition of current Japanese economy and its comparison with last year; degree of satisfaction with current living standard an its comparison with last year; opinion of relationships between the people and elections/politics (especially voting); opinion of political and social problems (liberalization of agricultural import; welfare/public services and tax increase; the US-Japan Security Treaty system; voting for party or local candidate; political disputes and order; cash/in-kind donations to politicians; society based on non-intervention or mutual aid; counting on the influential or himself/herself; respecting tradition or individual judgment; desirable boundaries between work and private life; how to ask favors; and locally or nationally active politicians); and view of political ethics.
(2) Demographic items
Sex; date of birth; age; length of residence; commuting time; type of dwelling; last school completed; annual household income; number of family members living with Respondent; number of family members living away; occupation; type of industry; number of employees; farm area; job and title; union membership; livelihood earner and his/her occupation, job, and number of employees at workplace.

2. Post-election survey
(1) Survey Questionnaire
Degree of recognition of candidates (their names and R's feelings toward them); voting practice (voted or abstained; candidate R voted for; strength of R's support; voted for party or individual; timing of decision; and party R voted for and its reasons); opinion of the 96 election as compared to past (electoral competition in district; decision on whom to vote for; telephone calls for voting requests; differences in parties; and differences in candidates; and other matters like candidates, parties, election results, and election system); 5 persons R often talks with, its frequency, and candidates/parties R thinks they voted for; talk of election R had with unexpected person, and candidate/party R thinks s/he voted for; R's effort of convincing acquaintances to vote (participated in campaign or not; people R reached; and candidate/party R represented); R's involvement in election campaigns after the 96 election (participated or not, and candidate/party R represented); whether R read/heard about a range of issues (such as administrative reform, sales tax increase to 5 percent, and economic recovery) in newspapers, in speeches, and on television during the election period; candidates/parties R found impressive and substance of impression (official TV program broadcasting political opinions; news program; TV commercial; newspaper article; newspaper ad; poster; and good/bad impressions); attitudes to official TV program of political opinions (comparison with past); extra-voting channels of political participation; experience of using these channels; acquaintances' call for participation in political activity; intentions for future participation in political activity; recognition of referendum and its locality; party R feels close to (whether such party exists or not; name of party; and closest party and its closeness); opinion of relationships between popular voice and party/election/Diet; opinion of relationships between the people and election/politics (11 items); opinion of politics (Dietman/Dietwoman; for benefits of large organizations or entire people; if people's life is left behind; degree of trust in national politics; degree of trust in local politics; degree of fairness in election; degree of party concerns about voters; necessity of parties; degree of Dietmen's understanding of voters; contact with Dietman/woman in past year; degree of difference who rules makes; voters' impact on political change; and degree of Japanese people's openness in expressing their political opinion); feelings toward the six major parties; feelings toward each party leader; and groups/organizations R belongs to, and candidates/parties they support.

(2) Demographic items (same as those in the pre-election survey)
Date of Release 1998/12/01
Version 10 October 1998: Released
31 March 2004: 'Restriction of Use' revised
Topics Politics/Administration/Election
Notes for Users Data Sets written in English (jeds96e1.sav) is available as well as Data Sets in Japanese (jeds96j1.sav).
Citation: Any writings or oral presentations based on JEDS96 English Version data have to acknowledge the data source and the principle investigators: Japanese Elections and Democracy Study 1996(JEDS96),conducted by Bradley M.Richardson,Mitsuru Uchida and associates. The data file of JEDS96 (JEDS96e1.por;SPSS portable file)and the codebook are prepared by Kenichi Ikeda,Yoshitaka Nishizawa,and Aiji Tanaka.