University of Tokyo

Abstract
Survey Number 0147
Survey Title Employee-Management Relations in the New Era, 1998
Depositor Research Institute for Advancement of Living Standards
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Summary Japan's employment system is currently facing a major transition, which is induced by the structural change in the industry due to globalization and the advancement of the information technology, changes in the consciousness of employment and value of work in the workers, and needs and the transformation of business structure of the enterprises. As a result, managers are forced to reexamine the concept of the traditional personnel recourse management, which has attached great importance to stable, long term employment and seniority, and to optimize both the domestic and international demography of employees and the form of employment. In order to adjust to the transition, it is necessary to reconsider the systems which are hampering the mobility of the labor force. It is also necessary to establish an employment system which enables both the labor and the management to flexibly make variety of choices, to create a labor market which is easy to enter and transfer within, and to build a new individual labor-management relationship, which is beneficial to both parties involved. Individual workers and those who are responsible for personnel and labor management in the companies are inquired in this survey in order to accurately grasp the reality of the environment in which companies now exist and to have a picture of how the reform of employment relationship should be undertaken.
Universe Survey of individuals workers: 2000 people among the union members of private companies under RENGO, who engage in clerical, sales, and technological work, and 300 managers of the companies listed in the First Section of the stock market, whose positions are section chief or above.Survey of companies: those who are responsible for personnel and labor management in 300 companies which are listed in the First Section of the stock market.
Unit of Observation Individual,Organization
Sample Size Survey of individual workers: a sample of 2,300, of which 1,192 responded (144 responses from section chiefs and those who are ranked higher, 1,048 responses from sub-section chiefs) (effective response 51.8%).Survey of companies: a sample of 300 companies, of which 38 responded (effective response 12.7%).
Time Period February - March 1998
Spatial Unit Throughout Japan
Sampling Procedure
Mode of Data Collection Survey of individual workers: survey sheets were distributed to the union members through each union under RENGO and were collected directly through mail. Survey sheets were mailed directly to the managers and were collected through mail..Survey of companies: survey sheets were mailed directly to those who are responsible for personnel and labor management, and were collected through mail.
Investigator JTUC (Rengo) Research Institute for Advancement of Living Standards
Sponsors (Funds) The Ministry of International Trade and Industry
Related Publications (by the Investigator) JTUC-RIALS (March 1998) Shin Jidai no Roshi-kankei ni kansuru Chosa Hokokusho (Research Report on the Labor-Management Relationship in the New Era)
Related Publications (based on Secondary Analysis) List of related publications (based on Secondary Analysis)
Documentation [Kojin Chosa-hyo][Kigyou Chosa-hyo]
Major Survey Items [Survey of individual workers]
Questionnaire items:
Existence and necessity of personnel system (practice); prevalence of merit system in the workplace; reasons for wanting a reformed personnel system; fairness of the performance appraisal system in the company; reasons for giving up the decision of transferring to a different company or leaving the company; perspective of transfer; (to those who would presumably transfer) how it will happen; (to women only) how marriage and childbirth would be reconciled with transfer or resigning to work; reasons for thinking of transferring; whether and how extensively women employees have the opportunity to show their capability in the company; what companies and managers ought to be doing in order to utilize the capability of women workers; things women workers should be doing in order to utilize their capability; age until which you wish to work; measures required in order to incorporate the senior citizens, who are 60 years of age or above, into the labor force; training method taken in order to enhance one's capability and knowledge; reasons for actually (or thinking of) self-developing yourself; barrier or problems faced in the process of self-development; recognition of the "incentive wage system for taking educational programs for mid- and senior-aged workers" and what you expect for the system; grievance procedure system and how the system is evaluated; grievance procedure you wish to be established in the future; thoughts on tax deduction and special tax deduction systems for spouse.
Demographic items:
Sex; age; last school attended; position; years of employment; contents of the job; trade union affiliation; experiences of transfer; number of times transferred; annual income; members of the household; spouse's employment status; form of residence; location of the workplace; business type of the employer; number of regular employees in the entire company; form of the company; percentage of women workers in the company's regular workers; average age of the male regular workers; number of atypical workers.

[Survey of companies]
Questionnaire items
Hiring situation of while collar workers; expectancies for white collar workers at the time of hiring; whether personnel system was changed in the past five years, and whether there is a plan to change it in the future; reasons for changing the personnel system; how extensively the personnel system (practice) is introduces; current merit system and how it would be transformed in the future; whether and how extensively women employees have the opportunity to show their capability in the company; what companies and managers ought to be doing in order to utilize the capability of women workers; things women workers should be doing in order to utilize their capability; form of employment for people in their early 60s; measures required in order to incorporate the senior citizens into the labor force; training method taken in order to enhance one's capability and knowledge; educational and training methods needed to enhance the employees' capabilities and knowledge required in the business; policies on the future education and training of the employees'; grievance procedure system and how the system is evaluated; grievance procedure you wish to be established in the future; thoughts on deregulation in employment; thoughts on tax deduction and special tax deduction systems for spouse.
Demographic items:
Location of the head office; year of establishment; business type; form of the company; number of regular workers; percentage of women workers in the company's regular workers; percentage of workers who are 55 years of age or above in the company's regular workers; percentage of atypical workers; average age of regular workers; regular workers' average years of service; ratio of total amount of personnel expenses in the sales and its fluctuation; existence of labor union.
Date of Release 2000/09/28
Version Registered on September 28, 2000.
Topics Employment/Labor
Notes for Users Data Sets are written in Japanese.