University of Tokyo

Abstract
Survey Number 0179
Survey Title International Comparison Survey on Managerial Careers and White-collar Work, 1995-97
Depositor The Japan Institute for Labour Policy and Training
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Period of Data Use Permission One year
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Summary This survey was conducted under the direction of chief Koike Kazuo as a collaborative research project, "International Comparative Research on the Labor Management of White Collar College Graduates", of Japan Institute of Labor. In this project, a number of case studies has been carried out under the same approach.
The mission of this research is to clarify the current situation of human development and labor management of white collar college graduates, especially those in the managerial class (chief of division/section), through international comparative research. The subject countries for the international comparison are three countries---U.S., Germany and Japan. This survey generally grasps the current situation of the development of talented persons not only through off-jt (off the job training), but also through a wider definition of OJT (on the job training) including career advancement and job experience. This survey not only demonstrates the systems to develop talented persons and labor management system and their operation, but also grasps the career of white collar workers. In order to understand the ways in which OJT (in its wider sense) should be carried out, scope of search is limited to three occupational ability: personnel affairs, management, and accounting. Each chief of division/section was asked about his/her career and the evaluation of his/her career. Questions regarding systems to develop talented persons and labor management systems and their operation were included in the survey of the managerial class (aimed toward division chief as for U.S. and Japan, and section chief as for Germany) responsible for personnel affairs.
Universe Chiefs in the personnel, management and accounting division/section in the company.
Unit of Observation Organization
Sample Size [Japan]
(numbers in theorder of)personnel affairs/ management/ accounting;
questionnaire sent to division chiefs---1000/ 1000/ 1000
collected questionnaires-------------148/ 157/ 282
questionnaire sent to section chiefs---2000/ 2000/ 2000
estimated actual distribution----------296/ 314/ 564
collected questionnaires-------------260/ 269/ 451
[U.S.]
(numbers in theorder of)personnel affairs/ management/ accounting;
questionnaire sent to division chiefs---1000/ 1000/ 1000
collected questionnaires--------------99/ 92/ 132
questionnaire sent to section chiefs---2000/ 2000/ 2000
estimated actual distribution----------198/ 184/ 264
collected questionnaires-------------126/ 110/ 193
[Germany]
(numbers in theorder of)personnel affairs/ management/ accounting;
questionnaire sent to division chiefs---630/ 630/ 630
collected questionnaires-------------131/ 91/ 120
questionnaire sent to section chiefs---570/ 500/ 500
collected questionnaires-------------150/ 94/ 88
Time Period Japan: July- August 1996
U.S.: June-September 1995
Germany: November 1996-January 1997
Spatial Unit Japan, U.S. and Germany
Sampling Procedure [Japan]
Under each of the three categories of occupational ability---personnel affairs, management, and accounting---one vice-director of the section, who is located in the head office, was selected for one company from the file data (renewed in October 1995) of Diamond Company Directory until each pool of vice-directors reached 1000 by filling in the samples selected in order of the size of the company. Sampled by computer. There are companies in the directory, which do not list the vice-director for each of the three categories of occupational abilities. Therefore, companies sampled by three occupational abilities are not the same.
[U.S.]
1000 companies were selected in order of the size of the company by using both Ward's Business Directory (The Reference Press, 1995 edition) and Compustat II (Standard and Poor, 1995 edition),and then among the 1000 companies selected one section chief was sampled for each of the three categories of occupational abilities---personnel affairs, management, and accounting. As opposed to the sampling procedure for Japan, section chiefs were selected for each of the three categories of occupational ability within the same sampled companies.
[Germany]
Questionnaires were distributed and collected under the extensive cooperation of Prof. Heidack at Dusseldorf Upper Vocational College. Sample companies were sampled using Index of Deutsche Gesellshaft fuer Grosunternehmen (1996) and Prof. Heidack's knowledge based on personal experience.
Mode of Data Collection [Japan]
One questionnaire for division chief and different two questionnaires for his subordinate, section director, were send to the division chief. Requests were made to the division chief to fill out the questionnaire and to distribute the questionnaires to the section director. Mail was sent specifying the names. Written questionnaire was to be sent back to Japan Institute of Labor. The number of questionnaires distributed to section chiefs are though to correspond to the number of division chiefs who responded to the questionnaire x 2. Therefore, the numbers of estimated actual distribution are attained by hypothetically assuming that division chiefs who responded had distributed the questionnaires to section directors.
[U.S.]
One questionnaire for division chief and different two questionnaires for his subordinate, section director, were send to the division chief. Requests were made to the division chief to fill out the questionnaire and to distribute the questionnaires to the section director. About half of the names of the sampled division chiefs were ascertained. Those names were specified in the mail. Other mail was sent by addressing the title (position) of the recipient. Written questionnaires were sent to Institute of Labor-Management Relationship at University of Illinois. After sending out the questionnaires, letter of reminder was sent. Respondents were also reminded by phone calls.
[Germany]
With regards to 500 companies among the selected companies, one questionnaire was sent to each person holding the position of either division chief or section chief in three of the categories of occupational ability---personnel affairs, management and accounting (total of 6 questionnaires were sent). Later, division chief of 130 companies and section chief in the personnel section of 70 companies were sampled in addition to the samples which had already been selected. Questionnaires were sent to them as well.
Investigator The Japan Institute of Labor
Sponsors (Funds)
Related Publications (by the Investigator) The Japan Institute of Labor (January 1998) Chosa Kenkyu Hokokusho 101, Kokusai Hikaku: Daisotsu Howaitokara no Jinzai Kaihatsu/Koyo Shisutemu---Nichi, Bei, Doku no Daikigyo (2) Anketo Chosa-hen (Research Report No. 101, International Comparative Research between large companies in Japan, U.S. and Germany on the Personnel Development and Employment System of White Collar College Graduates).
Related Publications (based on Secondary Analysis) List of related publications (based on Secondary Analysis)
Documentation [Jinji bucho Chosa-hyo][Eigyo bucho Chosa-hyo][Keiri bucho Chosa-hyo]
Major Survey Items Different questionnaires were prepared for division/section chiefs in three of the categories of occupation ability (personnel affairs, management and accounting), however, question items in those questionnaires were mostly the same. Note that questions concerning systems regarding development of talented persons and labor management and their operation were only included in the questionnaire for division chief (which is equivalent to section chief in Germany) in the personnel division. Question items used in 3 countries were almost identical.
[common question items] (items with * are different between those in different category of occupational ability, items with ** included in questionnaire for division chief only): last school attended; MBAs within people with advanced degrees; major in higher education; number of companies you have worked for; year in which you entered the company you currently work for; area of occupational ability you are currently responsible for*; title**; year in which you acquired the title; number of subordinates who work directly under you; year in which you acquired the equivalent level of title to the title you currently hold**; year in which you acquired the title one rank below the title you currently hold**; effectiveness of training and career; whether you have a useful qualification; the most important qualification; usefulness of the qualification; year in which you obtained a social qualification; support you received from the company in earning the qualification; the previous rank of jobs you had; rank of jobs you held in the previous company you worked for; ranks of jobs you have so far held; rank of jobs you have had the longest in the previous company you worked for and the number of actual years; range of job in the rank of job you have had the longest in the company you currently work for; all the jobs you have experienced in the rank*; experiences in working in factories or branch offices and the number of years; career desirable for section chief; period in which gap in promotion start to appear**; period in which the percentage of persons with no possibility of promotion becomes 50%**; number of regular employees; type of business; sex; year of birth; annual income.
[question items included only in the questionnaire for division chief (which is equivalent to section chief in Germany) in the personnel division]: hiring rate of new college graduates, difference between the current rate and the rate 10 years ago; rate of non-newly college graduates to be chosen for division chief; difference between now and 10 years ago; rate of non-newly college graduates to be chosen for section chief, difference between now and 10 years ago; level one needs to meet in order to be promoted to division chief; level one needs to meet in order to be promoted to section chief; course for executive training; percentage of people among the white collar workers placed in the executive training course; percentage of people among those who hold the position of division chief with experiences in executive training; posts in the company in which one's performance in the previous job becomes crucial; posts in which priority for promotion is given to people inside; posts in which salary equivalent to salaries paid in other companies is paid; percentage of people with four-year-college degree in the regular workers, percentage of people in the managerial class.
Date of Release 2000/04/10
Version Registered on April 10, 2001.
Topics International Comparison/Diplomacy
Employment/Labor
Notes for Users Data Sets are written in Japanese.