University of Tokyo

Abstract
Survey Number 0601
Survey Title Questionnaire Survey among Childcare Service Users, 2002
Depositor Consumer information devision, Consumer Affairs Agency, Government of Japan
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Summary Childcare services, despite prospects for increasing demand due to increased social advancement of women, are seeing a serious shortfall in supply due to high costs mainly in urban areas.

In the Price Policy Section of the Quality-of-Life Bureau of the Cabinet Office, the “study group on childcare service prices” (chairperson: Naohiro Yashiro, president of the Japan Center for Economic Research) was established in May 2002 to empirically verify the supply and demand issues facing the childcare services market and the state of policymaking from an economic analysis viewpoint based on detailed data from both providers and users.

The survey recorded here was conducted as part of this effort. It is a questionnaire survey of users of childcare services, targeting households that had preschool children aged 0 to 5 years.

Use of childcare services, desire to use contingent childcare services, and desire to use contingent services given the integration of kindergartens and nursery schools were surveyed, and the Contingent Valuation Method was used to analyze demand.
 
Specifically, the following topics were analyzed in detail.
(1) Estimation of price elasticity of childcare services and number of latent childcare consumers, measuring degree of changes in demand for childcare services with changes in childcare fees

(2) Analysis of degree housewives are able to go out to work and contribute to the female labor pool by using childcare services

(3) Analysis of the results of integrating kindergartens/nursery schools discussed by the Council for Regulatory Reform and other bodies

The questionnaires in this survey included one “for nursery school users” (hereinafter, “User questionnaire”) and one “for people not using nursery schools” (hereinafter, “Non-user questionnaire”), in which the items from the “survey of attitudes toward integration of kindergartens and nursery schools” (administered to both users and non-users) conducted at a later date were matched to respondents and then linked back to each questionnaire.

Furthermore, a detailed nursery school survey was conducted on childcare service supply, with high-quality data comprehensively provided with the cooperation of 10 prefectures and their municipalities near Kanto. Analyzed together in the report, these surveys provided a full picture of childcare services.
Data Type quantatitive research
quantitative research: micro data
Universe Households (and particularly mothers) with preschool children aged 0 to 5 years in Tokyo, Kanagawa, Chiba, Saitama prefectures (municipalities within 30 km of the city center of Tokyo)
Unit of Observation Individual
Sample Size Number mailed: Total 3,100 households
Number of valid responses: From households using nursery schools 533
From households not using nursery schools 1,020
Date of Collection
Time Period
Spatial Unit Tokyo, Kanagawa, Chiba, and Saitama prefectures (municipalities within 30 km of the city center of Tokyo)
Sampling Procedure
Mode of Data Collection The questionnaire “for nursery school users” and the questionnaire “for people not using nursery schools” were enclosed with a letter. Households with youngest child in a nursery school were asked to respond to the former questionnaire and households with no child in a nursery school but a child in a kindergarten or caring for children at home were asked to respond to the latter.

Survey items on attitudes toward integration of kindergartens and nursery schools were asked at a later date and then matched and combined with the earlier surveys.
Investigator Quality-of-Life Policy Bureau, Cabinet Office, Government of Japan
DOI
Sponsors (Funds)
Related Publications (by the Investigator) Please refer to the abstract in Japanese.
Related Publications (based on Secondary Analysis) List of related publications (based on Secondary Analysis)
Documentation [User questionnaire][Non-user questionnaire]
Major Survey Items [User questionnaire] (including items in “survey of attitudes toward integration of kindergartens and nursery schools”)

(1) State of nursery school, etc.

- Form of nursery school, nursery management entities
- Childcare hours (drop off time/pickup time/starting time for extended childcare/ending time for extended childcare), night time/weekend and holiday childcare use
- Travel time to nursery school, time it takes to reach from nursery school to closest train station, desired location for childcare facility
- Services provided by nursery school, desired services
- Things nursery school does, things respondent wants nursery school to do
- Current childcare fees, non-nursery childcare fees, maximum childcare fees respondent is willing to pay to current nursery school
- Number of nursery schools within a commutable distance (certified nursery schools/uncertified nursery schools), ranking of current nursery school among nursery schools respondent preferred
- Whether or not nursery can handle sick children or has post-illness childcare facility
- Desire to use contingent certified nursery school: when monthly childcare fees are 40,000 yen/when 80,000 yen/(for respondent who desires to use it when 80,000 yen) highest amount/when 60,000 yen/when 20,000 yen/when 30,000 yen/(for respondent who does not want to use it even when 20,000 yen) highest amount

(2) State of respondent/spouse/family

- Number of household family members (including number of children aged 0 to 5 years, number of children aged 6 years and older, number of grandparents of children, number of other family members)
- Parents’ place of residence, spouse’s parents’ place of residence
- Respondent’s and spouse’s occupation/industry/commuting time to workplace/size of employer /mode of work/working hours per week/number of working days per month/real working hours per working day/number of working days in a year/years of employment /work experience/highest level of educational attainment/age
- Respondent’s and spouse’s wage income amount, total amount of household assets
- Respondent’s and spouse’s workplace systems of employee benefits (presence/whether or not respondent has used/whether the system is easy to use) (parental leave system, flex time system, reduced working hours system, long-term care leave system, sick/Injured child care leave system, company daycare, re-hiring system)
- Current type of housing
- Experience with changing jobs/leaving jobs, how many years ago respondent changed jobs/left a job, monthly income immediately before changing jobs/leaving a job
- Experience attending nursery school when respondent was a child, whether respondent thinks it is better if he or she cares for own child by him or herself

(3) Items in survey of attitudes toward integration of kindergartens and nursery schools (for both users and non-users)

- Recognition of integration of kindergartens and nursery schools
- Pros and cons of integration of kindergartens and nursery schools, reasons for opposing
- Youngest child’s age, other children’s ages
- Main childcare provider
- Time required to reach closest nursery school and kindergarten

- Kindergarten monthly fees/drop-off childcare fees
- Desire to use contingent childcare services due to realization of integration of kindergartens and nursery schools:when monthly amount of additional fees is 20,000 yen/when 40,000 yen/(for respondent who desires to use it when 40,000 yen) highest amount /when 30,000 yen/when 10,000 yen/when 15,000 yen/when 5,000 yen

- Nursery school monthly fees
- Desired use of contingent kindergarten education given realization of integration of kindergartens and nursery schools: when monthly amount of additional fees is 15,000 yen/when 30,000 yen/(for respondent who desires to use it for 30,000 yen) highest amount/when 20,000 yen/when 5,000 yen/when 10,000 yen/when 2,500 yen
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