University of Tokyo

Survey Number 1227
Survey Title Japanese Panel Study of Employment Dynamics, 2018
Depositor Recruit Works Institute
Restriction of Use For detailed information, please refer to 'For Data Users' on the SSJDA website.

- Apply to SSJDA. Depositor's approval required.
Educational Purpose Available for both research and instructional purposes.
Period of Data Use Permission One year
Access to Datasets Download
SSJDA Data Analysis Not available
Summary The Japanese Panel Study of Employment Dynamics (JPSED) involves an annual survey of individual work patterns, incomes, and occupations in the previous year, with results to be tracked from year to year. Data from the survey will be used to create and publish the Works Index as well as to grasp changes in the dynamics of employment and income in Japan. The present study constitutes the third JPSED survey. (For details, please refer to the official JPSED website:

As part of the present study, a supplementary survey was conducted for employees (respondents who stated that they were employed by a company or organization), asking questions about "wages," "learning activities," and "housework."

*Works Index composition
The Works Index was created to provide a benchmark of the ideal conditions in which individuals can work actively on an ongoing basis. Following discussion within the Recruit Works Institute, the following five essential indices were formulated.
I. Security 
II. Self-living 
III. Work Life Balance (WLB)
IV. Development 
V. Decent work (DW)

Components known as indicators (see below) are assigned to each index, with points calculated on a scale from 0 to 100 for each index based on survey results related to each indicator. A score of 100 represents the ideal state.

Indices and Indicators in the Works Index
I. Security 
- Working or highly-motivated to work as of December 2017
- Enrolled in unemployment insurance or receiving unemployment benefits
- Working in each month of 2017
- Short duration of out-of-work periods when changing jobs or before becoming employed
- Short duration of out-of-work periods
- There are few retirements due to company-side reasons
- Few cases of leaving a job due to company-side reasons

II. Self-living (economic)
- Own work income sufficient to meet own living needs
- Comparison with the average income of self-living independent people

III. Work Life Balance (continuity)
- Little or no overtime work
- Ability to take leave from work
- No obligation to leave work due to childbirth and parenting or care duties
- High degree of freedom in working hours and location

IV. Development (education and training)
- Responsibility for high-difficulty, diverse tasks
- Opportunities for OJT
- Opportunities for Off-JT
- Engagement in self-study (self-development)

V. Decent Work (DW) (soundness)
- Appropriate work volume and burden
- Discrimination-free workplace
- Harassment-free workplace
- There are organizations/means to guarantee workers’ rights
- Safe workplace and healthy workers
Data Type quantitative research: micro data
Universe Men and women aged 15 years and older in Japan
Unit of Observation Individual
Sample Size 50,677 valid responses
*Responses are in three categories from the 2018 survey onward: ongoing sample (last year's respondents), additional sample (new respondents this year), and recovered sample (2017 respondents who did not respond to the 2016 survey).

- Ongoing sample: 37,503 people (out of 47,081 responses solicited, valid response rate: 79.7%)
- Additional sample: 10,369 (out of 16,574 responses solicited, valid response rate: 62.6%)
- Recovered sample: 2,805 people (out of 11,418 responses solicited, valid response rate: 24.6%)
*21 of the above respondents were excluded from the total because they had moved overseas by the time of this year's survey.

Additional survey: 30,223 people
Date of Collection 2018-01-12 ~ 2018-01-31
2018/01/12 – 01/31
Additional survey: 2018/01/17 – 02/05
Time Period 2017 ~ 2017
Spatial Unit Japan
Sampling Procedure Other
Sample was distributed by gender, age group, work status, regional block, and educational history, based on data in the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications’ Labour Force Survey. The distribution was made to reflect the profile of the universe, but a smaller sample was taken from the non-labor force population aged 15-19 and the 65 and over age group. The actual categories used are shown below.

- Gender: man/woman
- Age: 15–19/20–24/25–34/35–44/45–54/55–64/65–69/70 years old and over
- Work status: labor force population/non-labor force population
- Work patterns: self-employed/family business employee/executive/regular/non-regular/fully unemployed
- Education: below university graduate/university graduate or above/currently enrolled
- Place of residence: 11 areas of Hokkaido, Tohoku, Southern Kanto, Northern Kanto/Koshin/Hokuriku/Tokai/Kinki/Chugoku/Shikoku/Kyushu/Okinawa

The number of responses collected in the non-labor force age groups of 15-19 and the age group of 65 and over were smaller than the actual populations of these categories, so weightings were added to ensure that the results reflected the overall population profile (gender x age x work status x education).

The report contains the results of limiting the sample to respondents aged 15–74 years, excluding students who have never worked as members of society after the back-weighted tabulation (the number of subjects to be tabulated is determined after the back-weighting).

The report shows the results after weighting and only of respondents aged 15–74 years, excluding students who have never entered the workforce (Number of responses collected is the weighted figure).
Mode of Data Collection Self-administered questionnaire: Web-based (CAWI)
Internet (monitor) survey. Survey requests sent to survey panel members of a survey company.
Investigator Recruit Works Institute; field surveys were conducted by INTAGE Inc.
DOI 10.34500/SSJDA.1227
Sponsors (Funds)
Related Publications (by the Investigator) Please refer to the abstract in Japanese.
Related Publications (based on Secondary Analysis) List of related publications (based on Secondary Analysis)
Documentation [Questionnaire] [Supplementary survey questionnaire] [Tables ] [Supplementary survey tables]
Major Survey Items [Face items]
- Gender, age, date of birth, current residence, highest level of educational attainment, department from which respondent graduated, current year level, experience of dropping out, marital status, presence of children, number of children, age of children (oldest and youngest), type of housing, cohabitants, main household provider, work status (January–November 2017)

[Information as of December last year]
(1) Work status and work style as of December last year
- Work status, employment status, form of employment
- (Only for those who are self-employed, family employees, doing side jobs at home) incorporation or not, whether or not business has a storefront, whether or not work is contracted, use of crowdsourcing
- Reasons for working, reasons for taking time off work, capacity to start work immediately if available
- Desire to work, degree of desire to work
- Engagement in job-seeking activities, reasons for not seeking work
- Reasons for not working, reasons for not wanting to work

(2) Place of work and content of job as of December last year
- Industry, size by number of employees, occupational category, official position
- Whether or not there is a period of employment agreement, length and number of renewals of employment agreement
- Enrollment in health insurance system, pension system, employment (unemployment) insurance
- Number of days and hours of work (in one week)
- Wage payment method, hourly wage
- Work flexibility (degree of freedom regarding working days, working hours, and location)
- Flexibility of work (freedom to choose work days, work hours, work locations)
- Work location
- Allocation of time at work (tasks directly connected with outputs of primary duties, auxiliary miscellaneous tasks, time spent on standby/waiting for customers, etc.)
- Telework hours, introduction and operating status of telework system, eligibility for telework system
- Mode of commuting to work
- Time use: commuting, housework and childrearing (on weekdays/days off)
- Number of times respondent left a job

[Information for the whole of last year (January to December)]
(3) Life last year (January to December) 
- Level of happiness, level of satisfaction with life
- Life events over the course of the year, work events over the course of the year, study activities
- State of taking a leave from work, proportion of paid leave entitlements used
- Health condition (stress level)

(4) Income for the last year (January–December)
- Source of income for living expenses
- Means of covering living expenses

(5) Study/training at work last year (January to December)
- Increase in complexity of work
- Opportunities for OJT and Off-JT
- Self-improvement activities

(6) Workplace environment last year (January to December) 
- Workplace conditions (volume of work, discrimination, power/sexual harassment, labor union, injuries, mental health)
- Job characteristics (diverse work, understanding of operations as a whole, impact on others, individual discretion, proper evaluation)
- Job satisfaction (satisfaction with job itself, satisfaction with interpersonal relations, sense of achievement, career prospects, satisfaction with vocational experience to date, working with vitality)

(7) Work-life balance last year (January to December) 
- Stress in balancing work and home life
- Source of stress

(8) Side Jobs
- Whether or not engaging in side jobs, intention to engage in side jobs, reason for wishing to engage in side jobs, reason for having engaged in side jobs
- Form of employment of side job that generates the most income/job details
- Business structure, whether or not business has a storefront, whether or not work is contracted, whether or not crowdsourcing is used
- Number of side jobs,number of hours spent on side jobs per week

[Information on the past, the future]
(9) First job
- Form of employment, industry, size by number of employees, occupational category

(10) Previous job
- Form of employment, industry, pattern of mobility between industries (broad categories), size by number of employees, pattern of mobility between sizes (medium categories), pattern of mobility between occupational category
- Number of working days/working hours (per week), annual income, increase/decrease in income (comparison between the first and second year before and after changing jobs)
- Pathway to getting the job
- Order of leaving previous job and finding current job, reason for leaving previous job

(11) Careers of women with children
- Work status before/after birth of youngest child (when finding out about pregnancy/at the time of childbirth/on child’s first birthday), system respondent used when giving birth to the youngest child

(12) Past experience and future work intentions
- Places of residence to date (at age 15, at age 20, at time of first job)
- Grades in the third year of junior high school
- Month and year of graduation from educational institution attended before entering the workforce/ month and year of starting and leaving first job/month and year of starting current job (as of December last year)
- Month and year of starting and leaving previous job
- Annual income from main job, annual income from side jobs, annual income from sources other than jobs
- Who to go to for advice
- Spouse’s work status, spouse's annual income
- Whether or not long-term care is provided, number of people who require long-term care, the respondent’s relationship with the long-term care recipients, whether respondent has informed his or her workplace about being a carer
- Intention to change jobs/find a job
- Efforts relating to choosing a path undertaken last year, desired future path, determination of carrier path after graduating, job-hunting experience

[Supplementary survey]
(13) Wages
- Explanation of the wage system, whether the wages are commensurate with the work, a wage increase request

(14) Learning activities
- Learning activities performed under the direction of the company or superiors, voluntary learning activities
- Reasons for taking learning actions, effects of learning actions, reasons for not taking learning actions
- About learning activities (knowing what to learn, setting learning goals, having a place to share things learned with others, and having a place to make use of things learned)
- Learning activities at work, learning activities during school days

(15) Housework
- Housework sharing ratio (respondent, spouse, other family members)
- Time allocated to/spent on housework
- Degree of housework burden, reason housework is not burdensome, reason housework is burdensome
Date of Release 2018/12/21
Topics in CESSDA Click here for details

Employee training
Working conditions
Family life and marriage
Social and occupational mobility
Topics in SSJDA Employment/Labor
Version 1 : 2018-12-21
2019 : 2019-06-18
Notes for Users