University of Tokyo

Abstract
Survey Number 0549
Survey Title The Present State, Problems with, and Direction of Companies' Benefit and Welfare Systems, 2006
Depositor Meiji Yasuda Research Institute, Inc.
(Former Name:Meiji Yasuda Institute of Life and Wellness, Inc.)
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Summary Many advanced countries are presently facing heavy development constraints in the form of resources, the environment, and population. As a result, they have little expectation of quantitative expansion of their domestic markets and, instead, find their corporate competitiveness greatly affected by loss of labor efficiency and productivity. This means that personnel and labor managers in Japanese corporations and labor leaders face a problem that cannot be easily resolved: how to continue meeting demand for improvement in employee welfare while also seeking greater labor efficiency.

Increasing labor efficiency through means such as employment fluidity is expected to effectively reduce labor’s share and improve income and expenditure in the short term, but it inherently risks medium- to long-term suppression of labor productivity through decline in human capital investment. Furthermore, if welfare expenses are streamlined by reducing them below appropriate levels, not only is there concern of decreased support for the lives of employees but this may also ultimately cause a loss in labor productivity due to reduced morale and measures supporting mental and physical health. Thus, it appears that an approach is being sought in which cost management of welfare expenses is pursued while properly recognizing the usefulness of measures contributing to improved productivity and enhancing them as necessary.

This survey is an online survey of corporations and employees on the present state and issues facing welfare in Japan, with awareness of the above problems and exploration of possible future directions. The main survey items are personnel management and labor relations measures, etc./welfare systems/“work-life” balance support systems/relative weight of social security, corporate welfare systems and self-sufficiency efforts/voluntary enrollment in life security systems, etc.

The characteristics of this survey are as follows.
1. A corporate survey and employee survey conducted in parallel. Both surveys are on the same theme, and the results thereof can be contrasted.
2. The corporate survey consists of responses from corporate welfare managers. It can be analyzed per corporate size by number of employees and industry.
3. The employee survey allows for respective analysis of regular employees and non-regular employees.
4. Sampling of non-regular employees consists of part-timers/casual part-timers (arubaito) (excluding dispatched (haken) workers and subcontractors, etc.).
5. The survey also covers “work-life balance” support systems, in addition to welfare systems.
6. The representativeness of populations is supplemented using the “Establishment and Enterprise Census of Japan” of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications.
Data Type quantitative research
quantitative research: micro data
Universe [Corporate survey]
Human resource (general affairs) /labor relations managers at private corporations with five or more regular employees having decision-making authority over the administration of “welfare” in their departments and a half-year or more experience of relevant work (managers, executive officers, regular employees)
[Employee survey]
Regular employees/non-regular employees working at corporations with five or more regular employees and having headquarters offices in survey areas listed below.

*In this survey, “regular employees” are people responding in a preliminary survey that they are managers, officers or regular employees.
*In this survey, “non-regular employees” are people responding in a preliminary survey that their employment status as part-time/casual part-time (arubaito) (dispatched workers (haken shain) are not included).
Unit of Observation Individual,Organization
Sample Size
Number of valid responses (after correction) (before correction)
[Corporate survey] 1,504 1,647
[Employee survey] 2,972 2,972
*Refer to the survey method below for any differences in corporate survey sample size before and after correction.
Date of Collection [Corporate survey] 2006/12/25–12/27
[Employee survey] 2006/12/26–12/27
Time Period
Spatial Unit Sapporo City, Sendai City, Saitama City, Chiba City, Tokyo (23-ku (wards)), Kawasaki City, Yokohama City, Shizuoka City, Nagoya City, Kyoto City, Osaka City, Sakai City, Kobe City, Hiroshima City, Kitakyushu City, Fukuoka City
Sampling Procedure A preliminary survey is conducted to secure the sample matching the conditions of subjects for this survey.


Workplace areas/locations of headquarters offices of corporate workplaces/employment status/number of regular employees of corporate workplaces (company-wide)/industry of corporate workplaces/occupation type/period working in the applicable occupation type/degree of contribution to administration of “welfare” in corporate workplaces/period involved in administration of “welfare” in corporate workplaces

Basic attributes including gender (men, women) and age (20s, 30s, 40s, 50s) are narrowed down from a survey panel* maintained by Macromill and then randomly sampled.

 * Regarding survey panel maintained by Macromill
- Present number of active members: approximately 470,000 people (as of February 2007)
- Constructed mainly by public web-based appeals
- Appeals made by posting banners on large portal sites such as Yahoo! Japan and Excite at start of service
- Appeals made via affiliate programs on various journal sites such as community, music, sports, business, and search sites (12,000 sites or more)
- Additionally, some appeals made in print via newspapers and information magazines.
Mode of Data Collection Internet survey
*Subjects received response request e-mails guiding them to a web-based questionnaire page for entering/sending responses.

<Collection method>
A total of 256 collection cells were set according to gender and age, headquarters office location, and employment status (regular employees, non-regular employees) and then collected on a first-come, first-served basis until the number of set cell collections was reached. E-mail sending time at the start of the survey was 8:00 p.m. when the stay-at-home rate was high, ensuring randomness and representativeness of respondent attributes through first-come, first-served collection.

In addition, there were 98 responses responding to both the corporate survey and employee survey, however, arbitrarily limiting responses to both surveys would mean that randomness would not be maintained, so no particular limitations were imposed. It was therefore possible to obtain responses from the viewpoint of human resource (general affairs) and labor relation managers from the corporate survey and responses from the viewpoint of individual employees from the employee survey.

<Correction when summarizing>
Collected data before correction showed divergence from the population constituent ratios and representativeness was not being maintained. So the results were weighted with respective correction coefficients for corporations and employees.

In the corporate survey, data other than the applicable type of industry cannot be corrected and is therefore not subject to analysis. Consequently, the collection number listed in reports is not the 1,647 actually collected but 1,504.

In the corporate survey, collected responses were weighted per type of industry and size by number of employees based on the results of the establishment census conducted by the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications (2004) and summarized so that they mirror the constituent ratios in the census.

In the employee survey, collected responses were weighted per type of industry, employment status (regular employees/non-regular employees) and gender, based on the results of the establishment census conducted by the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications (2004) and summarized so that they mirror the constituent ratios in the census.
Investigator Meiji Yasuda Research Institute, Inc., survey carried out by Macromill, Inc.
DOI
Sponsors (Funds)
Related Publications (by the Investigator) Please refer to the abstract in Japanese.
Related Publications (based on Secondary Analysis) List of related publications (based on Secondary Analysis)
Documentation [Corporate questionnaire][Employee questionnaire]
Major Survey Items [Corporate survey]

(1) Personnel management and labor relations measures, etc.
Personnel and labor manager awareness of operating environments (environmental changes influencing performance and work, critical business activity issues), present status of labor demand (whether there are any non-regular employees, male-female composition of regular employees, labor surpluses and shortages, employee retention, status of recruiting), personnel and labor issues, recent state of human resource and labor strategies, future direction of human resource and labor relations

(2) Welfare systems
State of introducing benefit and welfare systems (presently introduced systems, systems available to non-regular employees), benefit and welfare systems that should be enhanced/reduced (systems that should be introduced/enhanced in the future, systems that should be abolished/reduced in the future, welfare system areas to emphasize in the future, life security-related products, and services that should be newly established or enhanced in the future [for regular employees/for non-regular employees]), purpose of benefit and welfare systems, effects obtained from benefit and welfare systems, issues and problems facing present benefit and welfare systems, most prominent issues facing present systems, possibility of rebuilding benefit and welfare systems, concerns about pursuing rebuilding, reason that rebuilding has not proceeded, promotion and knowledge of benefit and welfare systems (methods of transmitting information to employees, informing new company employees, information disclosure via insurance system intranets)

(3) Relative weight of lifetime security systems (public assistance, mutual aid, self-sufficiency)
Relative weight of social security, relative weight of benefit and welfare systems funded by corporations, relative weight of benefit and welfare systems funded by employees

(4) “Work-life balance” support systems
Status of introducing “work-life balance” support systems (already introduced systems, systems available to non-regular employees, presently used systems, systems that should be introduced/enhanced in future, systems that should be abolished/reduced in future), significance of “work-life balance” (value to employees with increased working hours, value to employees with increased personal time, hours devoted to work/hours devoted to personal time in employee status (10 items), preferred employee lifestyle, balance for male regular employees)

(5) Voluntary enrollment life security systems
State of introducing voluntary group term insurance (whether or not introduced, average insurance payouts/insurance premiums), systems used in voluntary group term insurance, continued retiree coverage, reasons continued post-retirement coverage not possible, retirees most in need of continued coverage

State of introducing voluntary enrollment medical insurance (whether or not introduced, daily hospitalization coverage, insurance premiums), continued retiree coverage, reasons continued post-retirement coverage not possible, retirees most in need of continued coverage

State of introducing voluntary enrollment group income indemnity insurance (whether or not introduced, monthly insurance payouts, insurance premiums, maximum coverage period), economic support for days off work (combined coverage from health insurance damage allowance and voluntary enrollment group income indemnity insurance)

State of introducing post-retirement life security systems (contribution-type corporate pensions, general “nest-egg” savings, pension “nest-egg” savings, property accumulation house, defined contribution pension [corporate-type] enrollment status) monthly premiums, whether there are subsidization schemes, intention to promote and increase enrollment, desired monthly premium payments

Operating policy of voluntary enrollment life security systems (desired systems to promote for enrollment [increase], main departments), percentage of use/enrollment by new company employees

(6) Attributes, etc.
Details of primary business, year established, capital, total assets, whether listed in stock market, 2005 sales, 2005 ordinary profit, increase and decrease in sales in the past 3 years, increase and decrease in ordinary profit in the past 3 years

Annual salary/annual income gap for 35-year-old regular employee model, average age and years of employment of regular employees, percentage of female regular employees, percentage of mid-career regular employees, number of employees, number of non-regular employees, number of dispatched workers (haken shain)

Total number of regular employees who left in 2005, among them, number of employees who left for personal reasons, whether or not there is an early retirement incentive system introduced/applicable age, introduced employment extension system

Whether there are any unions or similar organizations, total annual labor costs, constituent ratio of total labor costs

<Attributes according to preliminary survey> (not found in questionnaires)
Respondent gender, age, prefecture, region, occupation


[Employee survey]

(1) Desired work style (desired lifestyle) and present and future concerns
Years of employment/mode of work/job changes, thoughts on balancing work and childcare/nursing care, thoughts on returning to workplace after absence for marriage and children, birth/childrearing/nursing care, retirement, thoughts on how to live in old age, feelings of anxiety about the present or the future (21 items)

(2) Relative weight of lifetime life security (public assistance, mutual assistance, self-sufficiency)
Relative weight of social security/corporate welfare systems/self-sufficiency efforts, expectations of coverage for medical expenses/childcare/nursing care/bereavement/income security on days off work/retirement funds by social security/corporate welfare systems (company-funded/employee-funded)/self-sufficiency efforts, whether public or private security (7 items)

(3) “Balancing work and life” (work-life balance) support systems, workplace assessments, etc.
Present and desired “work-life balance” (desired increases/decreases in time devoted to work/time devoted to personal time, desired increases/decreases in time devoted to work for various reasons (10 items), desired increases/decreases in time devoted to personal time for various reasons (10 items)), lifestyle, present work-life balance (time, mental health, financial, overall), use of “work-life balance” support systems (society-based systems, available systems, systems used), desired “work-life balance” support system enhancements, support systems highlighted when changing jobs, effects of “work-life balance” support systems, degree of balance between work and personal life, activities one wishes to spend time on to achieve better balance

Satisfaction and dissatisfaction with workplace human resource and labor relations measures, thoughts and assessment of workplace, degree of satisfaction with work (duties) and corporate workplace, impressions of workplace

(4) Benefit and welfare systems
Existing benefit and welfare systems in workplace, use of benefit and welfare systems (available systems, systems used), desired benefit and welfare system enhancements, systems highlighted when changing jobs, effects of benefit and welfare systems, degree of satisfaction with benefit and welfare systems (overall, by area), future expectations (desired areas to emphasize in benefit and welfare systems), complaint processing system (whether or not available, type, users, desired), benefit and welfare systems desired of labor unions

(5) Voluntary enrollment life security systems
State of enrollment in voluntary group term insurance (whether or not enrolled, death benefit payouts, annual insurance premiums), systems used, intention to newly enroll, reasons for enrollment, thoughts on life security for bereaved family

State of enrollment in voluntary enrollment medial insurance (whether or not enrolled, daily benefits, annual insurance premiums), intention to newly enroll

State of enrollment in voluntary enrollment group income indemnity insurance (whether or not enrolled, monthly insurance payouts, annual insurance premiums, coverage period), intention to newly enroll, reasons for enrollment, thoughts on income compensation

Post-retirement life security systems (contribution-type corporate pensions, general “nest-egg” savings, pension “nest-egg” savings, property accumulation savings for the acquisition of a house, defined contribution pension [corporate-type] enrollment status (whether or not enrolled, monthly premiums), whether or not there is a compensation system, intention to newly enroll, desired monthly premium payments

Enrollment in self-sufficiency systems in the workplace (whether or not enrolled, intention to newly enroll, desired agent)

(6) Attributes, etc.
Workplace industry, number of regular employees, sales, ordinary profit, increase and decrease in sales and ordinary profit in the past 3 years

Details of work, years of employment, presence of associations, etc., enrollment in labor union, official position in labor union, highest level of educational attainment, annual income, increase or decrease in annual income compared to 2 years ago, marital status, spouse’s occupation, spouse’s annual income, presence of children, number of children by gender, age of youngest child, household family members, whether or not any family member needs nursing care, existence of savings, whether or not respondent has deposit accounts, total amount of financial resources

Future life plan, number of years planned for in life plan, financing plan, last year’s annual savings, individually enrolled life insurance (illness and death benefit payouts, illness and daily hospitalization coverage, annual amount of individual annual pension insurance)

Number of days of labor per week, number of fixed working hours per week, overtime hours per week, paid overtime hours, commuting time, paid holidays granted last year, number of paid holidays respondent actually used, amount of one day’s income (annual paid holidays, parental leave, nursing leave), present type of residence

Experience/number of times changing jobs, age just before retirement, self-motivation for retirement, ideal retirement age

<Attributes according to preliminary survey> (not found in questionnaires)
Respondent gender, age, prefecture, region, occupation, regular or non-regular employee, city, etc.
Date of Release 2009/03/27
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Topics in SSJDA Employment/Labor
Version 1 : 2009-03-27
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